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Gaultheria humifusa
ALPINE WINTERGREEN

Higher Taxonomy
Family: EricaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: HEATH FAMILY
Habit: Perennial herb, shrub, tree. Stem: bark often peeling distinctively. Leaf: simple or 0, generally cauline, alternate, opposite (whorled), evergreen or deciduous, often leathery, petioled or not; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, cyme, or flowers 1, terminal or axillary, generally bracted; pedicel often with 2 bractlets. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, bell-shaped, cylindric, or urn-shaped; sepals generally (0)4--5, generally free; petals generally (0)4--5, free or fused; stamens (2--5)8--10, free, filaments rarely appendaged, anthers dehiscing by pores or slits, awns 0 or 2(4), seemingly abaxial, reduced or elongate, generally curved; nectary generally present at ovary base, generally disk-like; ovary superior or inferior, chambers generally 1--5, placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1--many per chamber, style 1, stigma head- to funnel-like or lobed. Fruit: capsule, drupe, berry. Seed: generally many, winged or not.
Genera In Family: +- 100 genera, 3000 species: generally worldwide except deserts; some cultivated, especially Arbutus, Arctostaphylos, Rhododendron, Vaccinium. Note: Monophyletic only if Empetraceae included, as treated here. Ledum included in Rhododendron. Non-green plants obtain nutrition from green plants through fungal intermediates.
eFlora Treatment Author: Gary D. Wallace, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Gary D. Wallace, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: GaultheriaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Shrub, glabrous or short- or long-hairy, glandular or not, often smelling of wintergreen, generally rhizomed. Stem: prostrate to erect, rooting at nodes or not. Leaf: alternate, evergreen, leathery, entire to serrate. Inflorescence: raceme, each flower with 1 bract, 2 bractlets, or flowers 1 in leaf axils, each with 4--10 bractlets; pedicel jointed to flower. Flower: sepals generally 5, fused; petals 5, fused, cylindric, urn-, or bell-shaped, white to red; stamens (5,8)10, anthers dehiscing by 2 short, slit-like to rounded pores, awns (0,2)4, sometimes reduced; ovary superior or 1/2-inferior, chambers (4)5, placentas axile, at top. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal or irregularly dehiscing, generally +- enclosed by fleshy, colorful calyx (or a berry and/or with non-fleshy calyx). Seed: few to many per chamber, appendages 0.
Species In Genus: +- 130 species: circum-Pacific, eastern North America, eastern Brazil, Himalayas. Etymology: (J.F. Gaulthier, botanist, physician, Quebec, 1708--1756)
eFlora Treatment Author: Walter S. Judd

Gaultheria humifusa (Graham) Rydb.
NATIVE
Stem: low, < 2 dm, glabrous to puberulent, long, glandular hairs 0 to moderate. Leaf: 0.5--3 cm, minutely serrate or +- entire (or appearing so), especially near base; base rounded to truncate; tip obtuse to rounded. Inflorescence: flowers 1 in leaf axils. Flower: sepals glabrous, in fruit red; corolla bell-shaped, glabrous, white (pink-tinged); filaments papillate, anther awns 0. Fruit: red.
Ecology: Wet subalpine forests; Elevation: 1350--4000 m. Bioregional Distribution: KR, CaRH, SNH; Distribution Outside California: to British Columbia, Colorado. Flowering Time: Jun--Aug
eFlora Treatment Author: Walter S. Judd
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Citation for this treatment: Walter S. Judd 2016. Gaultheria humifusa, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=26486, accessed on May 06, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on May 06, 2016.


Gaultheria humifusa
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© 2011 Steve Matson
Gaultheria humifusa
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© 2008 George W. Hartwell
Gaultheria humifusa
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© 2010 Barry Breckling
Gaultheria humifusa
click for enlargement
© 2011 Steve Matson
Gaultheria humifusa
click for enlargement
© 2009 Steve Matson
Gaultheria humifusa
click for enlargement
© 2009 Steve Matson

More photos of Gaultheria humifusa in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Gaultheria humifusa:
KR, CaRH, SNH;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.