Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
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Galium bifolium

Higher Taxonomy
Family: RubiaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual to tree, vine. Leaf: generally opposite (whorled), entire; stipules generally fused to stem, adjacent pairs occasionally fused, or occasionally leaf-like and appearing like whorled leaves. Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, spike, cluster, or flower 1, generally terminal and +- axillary. Flower: generally bisexual; calyx +- 4(5)-lobed, occasionally 0 (Galium, Crucianella) or 6 (Sherardia); corolla generally radial, 4(5)-lobed; stamens epipetalous, alternate corolla lobes, generally included; ovary generally inferior, chambers generally 2 or 4, style 1(2). Fruit: drupe, berry, or 2 or 4 nutlets [capsule].
Genera In Family: +- 500 genera, 6000 species: worldwide, especially tropics; many cultivated, including Coffea, coffee; Cinchona, quinine; many ornamental. Note: Diodia teres Walter doubtfully in California.
eFlora Treatment Author: Robert E. Preston & Lauramay T. Dempster, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: GaliumView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: BEDSTRAW
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, occasionally subshrub, glabrous to hairy, generally scabrous; dioecious, bisexual, or flowers unisexual and bisexual. Stem: 4-angled, occasionally ridged lengthwise. Leaf: generally in whorls of >= 4, including leaf-like stipules. Inflorescence: panicles, axillary clusters (cymes), or occasionally 1 in axils. Flower: bisexual, or unisexual with sterile stamens or pistils; calyx 0; corolla generally rotate, occasionally +- bell-shaped, generally +- green, yellow to white, occasionally pink or red, lobes generally 4; ovary 2-lobed, styles 2, bases +- fused. Fruit: 2 nutlets or berry.
Species In Genus: +- 650 species: worldwide, especially temperate. Etymology: (Greek: milk, from use of some species for curdling) Note: Ovary and fruit generally +- equally hairy on a pl; staminate plants generally identified by vestigial ovaries, pistillate plants generally by vestigial anthers. Galium saxatile L., Galium schultesii Vest, and Galium verum L. are lawn weeds in California.
eFlora Treatment Author: Valerie Soza

Galium bifolium S. Watson
Habit: Annual, erect, generally 5--15 cm, glabrous; branches few or 0. Leaf: in whorls of 4, in 2 unequal pairs, or distal-most generally opposite, 10--21 mm, lanceolate to narrowly elliptic. Inflorescence: flowers generally 1 on thin pedicels; pedicels nodding. Flower: bisexual; corolla white, lobes generally 3, ovate, ascending, glabrous. Fruit: nutlets; hairs short, hooked.
Ecology: Open conifer forest, gravelly slopes, meadows; Elevation: 1500--3700 m. Bioregional Distribution: KR, NCoRH, NCoRI, CaRH, SNH, WTR, MP, n SNE (Bodie Hills), DMtns (Cottonwood Mtns); Distribution Outside California: to British Columbia, Montana, Colorado. Flowering Time: Jun--Sep
eFlora Treatment Author: Valerie Soza
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botanical illustration including Galium bifolium


Citation for this treatment: Valerie Soza 2017. Galium bifolium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on October 19, 2017.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2017. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on October 19, 2017.

Galium bifolium
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© 2009 Barry Breckling
Galium bifolium
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© 2009 Barry Breckling
Galium bifolium
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© 2011 Steve Matson
Galium bifolium
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© 2010 Keir Morse
Galium bifolium
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© 2009 Barry Breckling
Galium bifolium
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© 2012 Gary A. Monroe

More photos of Galium bifolium in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Galium bifolium:
KR, NCoRH, NCoRI, CaRH, SNH, WTR, MP, n SNE (Bodie Hills), DMtns (Cottonwood Mtns);
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.