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Funastrum hirtellum
TRAILING TOWNULA

Higher Taxonomy
Family: ApocynaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: DOGBANE FAMILY
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, shrub, tree, often vine; sap generally milky. Leaf: simple, alternate, opposite, subwhorled to whorled, entire; stipules 0 or small, finger-like. Inflorescence: axillary or terminal, cyme, generally umbel- or raceme-like, or flowers 1--2. Flower: bisexual, radial; perianth parts, especially petals, overlapped, twisted to right or left, at least in bud; sepals generally 5, fused at base, often reflexed, persistent; petals generally 5, fused in basal +- 1/2; stamens generally 5, attached to corolla tube or throat, alternate lobes, free or fused to form filament column and anther head, filament column then generally with 5 free or fused, +- elaborate appendages abaxially, pollen +- free or removed in pairs of pollinia; nectaries 0 or near ovaries, then 2 or 5[10], or in stigmatic chambers; ovaries 2, superior or +- so, free [fused]; style tips, stigmas generally fused into massive pistil head. Fruit: 1--2 follicles, (capsule), [berry, drupe]. Seed: many, often with tuft of hairs at 1 or both ends.
Genera In Family: 200--450 genera, 3000--5000 species: all continents, especially tropics, subtropical South America, southern Africa; many ornamental (including Asclepias, Hoya, Nerium, Plumeria, Stapelia); cardiac glycosides, produced by some members formerly treated in Asclepiadaceae, used as arrow poisons, in medicine to control heart function, and by various insects for defense. Note: Asclepiadaceae ("asclepiads"), although monophyletic, included in Apocynaceae because otherwise the latter is paraphyletic. Complexity of floral structure, variation in asclepiads arguably greatest among all angiosperms. Pattern of carpel fusion (carpels free in ovule-bearing region, fused above), present +- throughout Apocynaceae (in broad sense), nearly unknown in other angiosperms. Base chromosome number generally 11; abundance of latex, generally small size of chromosomes evidently have impeded cytological investigations.
eFlora Treatment Author: Thomas J. Rosatti, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: FunastrumView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Perennial herb [shrub]. Stem: generally twining or trailing. Leaf: opposite, generally +- persistent; blade thread-like to narrow-lanceolate. Inflorescence: at nodes, umbel-[raceme-]like cyme. Flower: corolla lobes +- spreading to erect-incurved, ring of tissue at corolla base present or not; filament column appendages +- 0 or free from each other, fused to ring of tissue at corolla base or not, +- spheric, attached to base of filament column, without projections, hollow (possibly due to complete fusion of margins), anthers fused into anther head around and fused to pistil head, pollen in pollinia; pistil head flat or, if +- conic, 2-lobed or not; nectaries in stigmatic chambers. Fruit: generally 1, erect or pendent, narrow-fusiform to lance-ovoid, with fine longitudinal grooves [or smooth]. Chromosomes: 2n=20,22,40,44 (reports not including California plants).
Species In Genus: +- 40 species: North America, Africa to Australia. Etymology: (Greek: fleshy crown or wreath, from sac-like filament column appendages of some species) Note: Our species treated as Cynanchum, Sarcostemma in TJM (1993), both shown to be polyphyletic in previous, broader circumscriptions (Liede & Täuber 2000, 2002).

Funastrum hirtellum (A. Gray) Schltr.
NATIVE
Habit: Plant gray-green, generally with dense, short, erect hairs. Leaf: petiole 1--15 mm, blade 10--36 mm, linear to narrow-lanceolate, base obtuse (truncate). Flower: corolla 3--6 mm, white to green-white, ring of tissue at base fused to filament column appendages, lobes +- spreading to +- erect. Fruit: generally 2 (often +- 180° divergent), 3.6--4.8 cm.
Ecology: Hard desert pavement, washes; Elevation: 150--1200 m. Bioregional Distribution: D; Distribution Outside California: Nevada, Arizona. Flowering Time: Mar--May
Synonyms: Philibertia hirtella (A. Gray) Parish; Philibertia linearis A. Gray var. hirtella (A. Gray) A. Gray; Sarcostemma hirtellum (A. Gray) R.W. Holm
eFlora Treatment Author: Thomas J. Rosatti
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Previous taxon: Funastrum cynanchoides var. hartwegii
Next taxon: Funastrum utahense

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Citation for this treatment: Thomas J. Rosatti 2016. Funastrum hirtellum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=26206, accessed on February 12, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on February 12, 2016.


Funastrum hirtellum
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© 2009 Keir Morse
Funastrum hirtellum
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© 2012 James M. Andre
Funastrum hirtellum
click for enlargement
© 2009 Keir Morse
Funastrum hirtellum
click for enlargement
© 2009 Keir Morse
Funastrum hirtellum
click for enlargement
© 2004 James M. Andre
Funastrum hirtellum
click for enlargement
© 2009 Keir Morse

More photos of Funastrum hirtellum in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Funastrum hirtellum:
D;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.