Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
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Fraxinus velutina

Higher Taxonomy
Family: OleaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Perennial herb to tree [vine], hairs 0 or peltate or not; rarely dioecious. Leaf: simple to odd-pinnately compound, alternate or generally opposite, deciduous or evergreen; stipules 0. Inflorescence: various; flowers >= 1. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial; calyx generally minute (0), tube cup-shaped, lobes 4--15; petals (0)4--6(8), generally fused; nectar disk often present; stamens (0)2(4--5), epipetalous; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers 2, each 2--4 ovuled, placenta axile, style 1, stigma generally 2-lobed. Fruit: drupe, capsule, or winged achene. Seed: 1 per chamber.
Genera In Family: +- 25 genera, 900 species: +- worldwide; some cultivated for ornamental (Forsythia; Jasminum, jasmine; Ligustrum, privet; Syringa, lilac) or food (Olea, olive).
eFlora Treatment Author: Family description, key to genera by Thomas J. Rosatti; treatment of genera by James Henrickson, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: FraxinusView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: ASH
Habit: Shrub or tree; generally dioecious, often bisexual (in California). Stem: older bark smooth or becoming furrowed, generally gray; lenticels broadly elliptic; twigs cylindric to 4-angled, glabrous to hairy; developing short-shoot spurs. Leaf: simple or generally odd-pinnate, opposite, deciduous; petioles channeled, occasionally winged, hairy or not; if compound, leaflets (1)3--9, lanceolate to ovate or obovate, generally acute to acuminate at tip, entire or +- crenate-serrate, generally dark green adaxially, pale abaxially, thin to +- leathery in drier habitats, generally glabrous or with simple hairs abaxially or throughout, proximal opposite on rachis, stalked or not, terminal generally largest, stalk longer. Inflorescence: axillary, of clusters or long-branched panicles; flowers pedicelled. Flower: unisexual or bisexual; calyx 1--2 mm, shallowly +- 4-lobed to cut, persistent on fruit; petals 0, 2, or 4, free or fused to basal filaments. Staminate Flower: stamens 2(3); pistil vestigial. Pistillate Flower: stamens 0; style slender; ovules 2 per chamber. Fruit: achenes, winged, wings generally flat, extending to tip or base of seed-containing chamber. Seed: generally 1.
Species In Genus: +- 65 species: temperate. North America, Eurasia, tropical Asia. Etymology: (Latin: ancient name) Note: Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsheim, Mexican ash, cultivated in western United States; similar to Fraxinus velutina, with +- larger leaves and leaflets, generally with stiff hairs to 0.5 mm bordering abaxial midvein and occasionally 2° veins abaxially (as occasionally in Fraxinus velutina), and +- larger fruit, but margins tapered to near base of fruit body; native northern Mexico to Honduras.

Fraxinus velutina Torr.
Habit: Tree < 15 m, trunk to 3 dm diam; dioecious. Stem: bark gray, furrowed; twigs cylindric, gray-brown, minutely coarse-hairy to velvety or becoming glabrous. Leaf: compound, 9--20(30) cm, occasionally stiff-leathery, minutely coarse-hairy to velvety throughout or generally adaxially, often becoming glabrous, hairs generally erect, straight, to 0.5 mm; petiole 2--8 cm, channeled; leaflets (3)5--7, 3--10 cm, 1.5--3.5 cm wide, lanceolate to lance-ovate or lance-obovate, tapered to base, long tapered at tip, entire to serrate, lateral leaflets generally smaller, with stalk 4--6(10) mm, terminal leaflet more tapered at base, with stalk 10--27 mm. Flower: petals 0. Staminate Flower: calyx < 1 mm, anthers 2(3), 2--3 mm. Pistillate Flower: calyx 1--2 mm, green, +- unequally cut; style 0.5, stigma 2--3.5 mm. Fruit: 15--38 mm, 3--6(8) wide; body 12--14 mm, +- cylindric, wing flat, extending proximally as tapering margin onto distal 1/4 of fruit body; fruit pedicel tip much expanded. Chromosomes: 2n=46,92.
Ecology: Canyons, streambanks, woodland; Elevation: 200--1600 m. Bioregional Distribution: s SN, SCo, TR, PR, s SNE, DMoj; Distribution Outside California: to southwestern Utah, Texas, northern Mexico. Flowering Time: Mar--Apr Note: Many southern California specimens show introgression with Fraxinus latifolia.
eFlora Treatment Author: Family description, key to genera by Thomas J. Rosatti; treatment of genera by James Henrickson
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botanical illustration including Fraxinus velutina


Citation for this treatment: Family description, key to genera by Thomas J. Rosatti; treatment of genera by James Henrickson 2016. Fraxinus velutina, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 04, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 04, 2016.

Fraxinus velutina
click for enlargement
© 2013 Neal Kramer
Fraxinus velutina
click for enlargement
© 2013 Neal Kramer
Fraxinus velutina
click for enlargement
© 2013 Neal Kramer

More photos of Fraxinus velutina in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Fraxinus velutina:
s SN, SCo, TR, PR, s SNE, DMoj;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.