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Foeniculum vulgare
FENNEL

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Apiaceae (Umbelliferae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: CARROT FAMILY
Habit: Annual to perennial herb [shrub, tree], generally from taproot. Stem: generally +- scapose, generally ribbed, hollow. Leaf: basal and generally cauline, generally alternate; stipules generally 0; petiole base generally sheathing stem; blade generally much dissected, occasionally compound. Inflorescence: umbel or head, simple or compound, generally peduncled; bracts present in involucres or 0; bractlets generally present in "involucels". Flower: many, small, generally bisexual (or some staminate), generally radial (or outer bilateral); calyx 0 or lobes 5, small; petals 5, free, generally ovate or spoon-shaped, generally incurved at tips, generally +- ephemeral; stamens 5; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 2-chambered, generally with a +- conic, persistent projection or platform at tip subtending 2 free styles. Fruit: 2 dry, 1-seeded halves (= mericarps), separating from each other but generally +- persistent to central axis; ribs on halves 5, 2 marginal, 3 to back; oil tubes 1--several per interval between ribs.
Genera In Family: 300 genera, 3000 species: +- worldwide, especially temperate; many cultivated for food or spice (e.g., Carum, caraway; Daucus; Petroselinum); Bupleurum lancifolium Hornem. is historical garden weed; some toxic (e.g., Conium). Note: Mature fruit generally critical in identification, shape given in outline. Hydrocotyle moved to Araliaceae. Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) A.W. Hill is a waif.
eFlora Treatment Author: Lincoln Constance & Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: FoeniculumView Description 


Species In Genus: 1 sp. Etymology: (Latin: fennel)

Foeniculum vulgare Mill.
NATURALIZED
Habit: Perennial herb, taprooted, 0.9--2 m, glabrous, glaucous, anise- or licorice-scented. Stem: erect, branched, solid. Leaf: petiole 7--14 cm, conspicuously sheathing; blade 3--4 dm wide, triangular-ovate, finely pinnately dissected, segments 4--40 mm, thread-like. Inflorescence: umbels compound, peduncled; bracts, bractlets 0; rays 15--40, unequal, 1--4 cm, spreading-ascending to ascending; pedicels 18--25, 1--10 mm, +- equal. Flower: calyx lobes 0; petals wide, yellow, tips narrowed. Fruit: 3.5--4 mm, oblong-ovate, compressed side-to-side, glabrous; ribs +- equal, prominent, acute; oil tube 1 per rib-interval; fruit axis divided to base. Seed: face generally flat. Chromosomes: 2n=22.
Ecology: Roadsides, disturbed sites; Elevation: < 1600 m. Bioregional Distribution: CA-FP, W&I; Distribution Outside California: native to southern Europe; widely escaped from cultivation in western hemisphere. Flowering Time: May--Sep Note: Locally abundant, invasive.
eFlora Treatment Author: Lincoln Constance & Margriet Wetherwax
Jepson Online Interchange
Weed listed by Cal-IPC

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Citation for this treatment: Lincoln Constance & Margriet Wetherwax 2016. Foeniculum vulgare, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=25972, accessed on February 08, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on February 08, 2016.


Foeniculum vulgare
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer
Foeniculum vulgare
click for enlargement
© 2009 Thomas Stoughton
Foeniculum vulgare
click for enlargement
© 2008 Neal Kramer
Foeniculum vulgare
click for enlargement
© 2009 Thomas Stoughton
Foeniculum vulgare
click for enlargement
© 2015 Neal Kramer
Foeniculum vulgare
click for enlargement
© 2009 Thomas Stoughton

More photos of Foeniculum vulgare in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Foeniculum vulgare:
CA-FP, W&I;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.