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Fallopia convolvulus
BLACK BINDWEED

Higher Taxonomy
Family: PolygonaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: BUCKWHEAT FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub [tree]. Stem: nodes swollen or not. Leaf: simple, basal or cauline, generally alternate; ocreae present or 0, generally scarious, persistent or not. Inflorescence: flower clusters in axillary to terminal cyme-, panicle-, raceme-, spike-, umbel- or head-like arrangements, entire inflorescence or main inflorescence branches generally subtended by bracts ("inflorescence bracts"); peduncles present or 0; flower clusters in Eriogoneae-Eriogonoideae subtended by involucre of >= 1 free or +- fused, sometimes awn-tipped bracts ("involucre bracts") or, in Polygonoideae and rarely in Eriogonoideae, not (if bracts completely fused, involucre "tubular"); pedicels in Eriogoneae each often subtended by 2 free, transparent, linear bractlets or in Polygonoideae all subtended by 2+ fused, membranous, wide bractlets. Flower: generally bisexual, small, 1--200 per node; perianth parts 2--6, generally in 2 whorls, free or basally fused, generally petal-like, often +- concave adaxially, often darker at midvein, often turning +- red or +- brown in age; stamens [1]3 or 6--9 in 2 whorls; ovary superior, 1-chambered, ovule 1, styles 1--3. Fruit: achenes, included in or exserted from perianth, generally 3-angled, ovoid or elliptic, generally glabrous.
Genera In Family: 48 genera, +- 1200 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate; some cultivated for food (Coccoloba, sea-grape; Fagopyrum, Rheum, Rumex) or ornamental (Antigonon, lovechain; Coccoloba; Muehlenbeckia; Persicaria; Polygonum), a few timbered (Coccoloba; Triplaris). Several (Emex; Fallopia; Persicaria; Polygonum; Rumex) are weeds. Note: Treatment of genera in Eriogonoideae based on monographic work of James L. Reveal. Involucre number throughout is number (1--many) per ultimate grouping, at tips of ultimate branches; flower number is per flower cluster or involucre, unless otherwise stated. Fagopyrum esculentum Moench not naturalized, considered an historical waif (or garden weed +- presently), therefore not treated.
eFlora Treatment Author: Mihai Costea, except as noted
Genus: FallopiaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual, perennial herb, vine or not. Stem: erect, trailing, or twining, glabrous or hairy, ribs 0. Leaf: cauline, alternate, petioled; ocrea persistent or not, cylindric, papery, opaque; blade broad-ovate to triangular, entire. Inflorescence: axillary, terminal, spike-, panicle-, or raceme-like; flowers 3--7; peduncle present or 0. Flower: bisexual or pistillate (1 kind per pl); perianth generally enlarging, bell-shaped, pale green or white to pink, glabrous, base stalk-like, parts 5, fused basally or +- completely, of 2 kinds, outer 3 generally winged, > inner 2; stamens 6--8, filaments free, wider basally, glabrous or hairy, anthers yellow to pink or red, ovate to elliptic; styles 3, spreading, fused basally or +- completely, stigmas head-like, fringed, or peltate. Fruit: included or exserted, 3-angled, brown to black. Seed: embryo straight.
Species In Genus: 12 species: America, Europe, Asia, Africa. Etymology: (for Gabriele Fallopio, 1523--1562, Italian professor of anatomy, botany, and surgery, for whom Fallopian tubes also named)

Fallopia convolvulus (L.) A. Löve
NATURALIZED
Habit: Annual, rhizomes 0. Stem: not woody, trailing or twining, 0.4--1.2 m, puberulent, fine-granular or not, branches proximal. Leaf: ocrea 2--4 mm, tan or green-brown, margin oblique, glabrous or scabrous; blade 2--6(15) cm, 2--5(10) cm wide, +- ovate, abaxially generally fine-granular, rarely minute-dotted, adaxially glabrous, base ovate, hastate, or sagittate, tip acuminate. Inflorescence: axillary, spike-like, 2--10(15) cm; peduncle 0--10 cm; pedicels 1--3 mm, glabrous (scabrous); flowers 3--6. Flower: bisexual, perianth not enlarging, 3--5 mm, green-white, often with +- pink base, glabrous or outer 3 lobes short-hairy, lobes elliptic to obovate, tips obtuse to acute, outer 3 +- keeled; stamens 8, filaments glabrous; styles fused distally, stigmas head-like. Fruit: included, 4--5(6) mm, 1.8--2.3 mm wide, black, dull, minute-granular-tubercled, especially on faces. Chromosomes: 2n=40.
Ecology: Disturbed places; Elevation: < 1000 m. Bioregional Distribution: CA-FP, MP; Distribution Outside California: to eastern North America; native to Europe. Flowering Time: May--Dec
Synonyms: Polygonum convolvulus L.; Bilderdykia convolvulus (L.) Dumort.; Reynoutria convolvulus (L.) Shinners; Tiniaria convolvulus (L.) Webb & Berthel.
eFlora Treatment Author: Mihai Costea
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Previous taxon: Fallopia baldschuanica
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Citation for this treatment: Mihai Costea 2016. Fallopia convolvulus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=25754, accessed on May 28, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on May 28, 2016.


Fallopia convolvulus
click for enlargement
© 2009 Barry Breckling
Fallopia convolvulus
click for enlargement
© 2009 Barry Breckling

More photos of Fallopia convolvulus in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Fallopia convolvulus:
CA-FP, MP;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.