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Erysimum perenne

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Brassicaceae (Cruciferae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual to shrub; sap pungent, watery. Leaf: generally simple, alternate; generally both basal, cauline; stipules 0. Inflorescence: generally raceme, generally not bracted. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals 4, generally free; petals (0)4, forming a cross, generally white or yellow to purple; stamens generally 6 (2 or 4), 4 long, 2 short (3 pairs of unequal length); ovary 1, superior, generally 2-chambered with septum connecting 2 parietal placentas; style 1, stigma entire or 2-lobed. Fruit: capsule, generally 2-valved, "silique" (length >= 3 × width) or "silicle" (length < 3 × width), dehiscent by 2 valves or indehiscent, cylindric or flat parallel or perpendicular to septum, segmented or not. Seed: 1--many, in 1 or 2 rows per chamber, winged or wingless; embryo strongly curved.
Genera In Family: +- 330 genera, 3780 species: worldwide, especially temperate. Note: Highest diversity in Mediterranean area, mountains of southwestern Asia, adjacent central Asia, western North America; some Brassica species are oil or vegetable crops; Arabidopsis thaliana used in experimental molecular biology; many species are ornamentals, weeds. Aurinia saxatilis (L.) Desvaux in cultivation only. Aubrieta occasional waif in central NCoR, Carrichtera annua (L.) DC. in SCo, Iberis sempervirens L., Iberis umbellata L. in PR, Teesdalia coronopifolia (Bergeret) Thell., Teesdalia nudicaulis (L.) W.T. Aiton in southern NCoRO, CCo. Cardaria, Coronopus moved to Lepidium; Caulostramina to Hesperidanthus; Guillenia to Caulanthus; Heterodraba to Athysanus; California taxa of Lesquerella to Physaria; Malcolmia africana to Strigosella.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: ErysimumView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual to subshrub [shrub]; hairs sessile, appressed, 2--5(8)-rayed. Leaf: basal rosetted, petioled, entire, dentate, or pinnately lobed; cauline sessile or petioled, bases not lobed. Inflorescence: elongated. Flower: sepals oblong to linear, erect, base of lateral pair sac-like or not; petals clawed, yellow or orange (white, purple, or brown). Fruit: silique, dehiscent, linear, cylindric, 4-sided, or flat parallel or perpendicular to septum, unsegmented; stigma entire or 2-lobed. Seed: 15--100, in 1 or 2 rows, plump or flattened, oblong, winged or not.
Species In Genus: +- 150 species: North America, Eurasia, northern Africa. Etymology: (Greek: to help or save, from alleged medicinal properties of some species) Note: Fls, fruit, basal leaves needed for identification. All native California taxa related to Erysimum capitatum; hybridization blurs limits of some species.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz

Erysimum perenne (S. Watson ex Coville) Abrams
Habit: Perennial herb (biennial), caudex short. Stem: 0.4--6.5 dm. Leaf: 3--10 mm wide, spoon-shaped to widely oblanceolate, +- entire to dentate, flat, hairs 2--5-rayed. Flower: sepals 8--12 mm; petals 15--22 mm, 3.5--6 mm wide, yellow, claw 8--14 mm. Fruit: 3.8--14 cm, 1.2--3 mm wide, flat parallel to septum, constricted between seeds; valves outside with 2- or 3(4)-rayed hairs, inside glabrous, midvein distinct; style (1.5)2--5.5 mm; pedicel spreading-ascending, 4--12 mm. Seed: 26--44, 2--3.4 mm, ovoid, wing 0 (tip winged). Chromosomes: 2n=36.
Ecology: Decomposing marble, gravelly ground, talus, granitic sand, alpine fell-fields; Elevation: 2000--4000 m. Bioregional Distribution: KR, CaRH, SNH, n SNE (Sweetwater Mtns); Distribution Outside California: Oregon, Nevada. Flowering Time: Jun--Sep
Synonyms: Erysimum capitatum var. perenne (S. Watson ex Coville) R.J. Davis; Erysimum capitatum subsp. perenne, ined.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz
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botanical illustration including Erysimum perenne


Citation for this treatment: Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz 2017. Erysimum perenne, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on September 20, 2017.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2017. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on September 20, 2017.

Erysimum perenne (Coville) Abrams
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© 2010 Julie Kierstead Nelson
Erysimum perenne
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© 2012 Barry Breckling
Erysimum perenne (Coville) Abrams
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© 1998 Larry Blakely
Erysimum perenne
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© 2006 Steve Matson
Erysimum perenne (Coville) Abrams
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© 2010 Julie Kierstead Nelson
Erysimum perenne (Coville) Abrams
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© 2009 Keir Morse

More photos of Erysimum perenne in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Erysimum perenne:
KR, CaRH, SNH, n SNE (Sweetwater Mtns);
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.