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Eryngium castrense

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Apiaceae (Umbelliferae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual to perennial herb [shrub, tree], generally from taproot. Stem: generally +- scapose, generally ribbed, hollow. Leaf: basal and generally cauline, generally alternate; stipules generally 0; petiole base generally sheathing stem; blade generally much dissected, occasionally compound. Inflorescence: umbel or head, simple or compound, generally peduncled; bracts present in involucres or 0; bractlets generally present in "involucels". Flower: many, small, generally bisexual (or some staminate), generally radial (or outer bilateral); calyx 0 or lobes 5, small; petals 5, free, generally ovate or spoon-shaped, generally incurved at tips, generally +- ephemeral; stamens 5; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 2-chambered, generally with a +- conic, persistent projection or platform at tip subtending 2 free styles. Fruit: 2 dry, 1-seeded halves (= mericarps), separating from each other but generally +- persistent to central axis; ribs on halves 5, 2 marginal, 3 to back; oil tubes 1--several per interval between ribs.
Genera In Family: 300 genera, 3000 species: +- worldwide, especially temperate; many cultivated for food or spice (e.g., Carum, caraway; Daucus; Petroselinum); Bupleurum lancifolium Hornem. is historical garden weed; some toxic (e.g., Conium). Note: Mature fruit generally critical in identification, shape given in outline. Hydrocotyle moved to Araliaceae. Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) A.W. Hill is a waif.
eFlora Treatment Author: Lincoln Constance & Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: EryngiumView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Biennial, perennial herb; taprooted, roots clustered, or rhizomes; generally glabrous, +- spiny. Stem: decumbent to erect, generally branched. Leaf: basal rosette, cauline; petioles present or 0; blades linear to triangular-ovate or round, generally pinnately or palmately lobed or dissected (entire), generally sharp-toothed or spine-tipped, net-veined; juvenile leaves linear, segmented. Inflorescence: heads 1--many in cymes, racemes [panicles]; bracts each generally subtend 1 flower, with scarious membrane enclosing ovary, outer > to >> inner, spiny or not on margins and abaxially; rays, pedicels 0. Flower: sepals spine-tipped, generally persistent; petals oblong to ovate or oblanceolate, white to blue or purple, tip long; anthers, styles generally green, occasionally blue; ovary tip projection 0. Fruit: obconic to obovate or narrowly elliptic [round], compressed or not, densely scaly; scales at fruit tip and along juncture of carpels generally larger, longer than on face or base; ribs 0; oil tubes obscure; fruit central axis not obvious. Seed: face generally flat.
Species In Genus: +- 230 species: America, Eurasia, Australia, New Zealand. Etymology: (Ancient Greek name used by Theophrastus) Note: California species variable, intergrading, need study.
eFlora Treatment Author: Robert E. Preston, Michael S. Park & Lincoln Constance

Eryngium castrense Jeps.
Habit: Glabrous. Stem: ascending to erect, 2--6 dm, many-branched 2--5 cm distal to rosette, spiny, glabrous. Leaf: petiole short to 0, << blade; blade 10--30 cm, oblong to lanceolate, deeply pinnately or bipinnately lobed. Inflorescence: heads 8--15 mm, +- spheric, in cymes; peduncle 0.5--2.5 cm; bracts 15--30 mm, linear, densely spiny on margins and abaxially. Flower: sepals 3--3.5 mm, lanceolate, margin scarious, entire (pinnately lobed or toothed in CaRF & c SNF), tapered to tip-spine; petals oblanceolate, white or faintly purple; styles 3.5--4.5 mm, generally > sepals. Fruit: 3--3.5 mm, narrowly elliptic; scales dense, +- unequal, lanceolate, acuminate, papillate. Chromosomes: 2n=32,64.
Ecology: Vernal pools, wet swales, intermittent streambeds; Elevation: < 900 m. Bioregional Distribution: CaRF, n&c SNF, e GV, e SnFrB (Diablo Range). Flowering Time: Apr--Jul Note: Intergrades with Eryngium spinosepalum in southern SNF and Eryngium vaseyi var. vallicola in SnJV.
eFlora Treatment Author: Robert E. Preston, Michael S. Park & Lincoln Constance
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Citation for this treatment: Robert E. Preston, Michael S. Park & Lincoln Constance 2016. Eryngium castrense, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on April 29, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on April 29, 2016.

Eryngium castrense
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© 2006 George W. Hartwell
Eryngium castrense
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© 2004 Carol W. Witham
Eryngium castrense
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© 2001 George W. Hartwell
Eryngium castrense
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© 2006 George W. Hartwell
Eryngium castrense
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© 2011 Barry Breckling
Eryngium castrense
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© 2007 Neal Kramer

More photos of Eryngium castrense in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Eryngium castrense:
CaRF, n&c SNF, e GV, e SnFrB (Diablo Range).
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.