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Epipactis helleborine
BROAD-LEAVED HELLEBORINE

Higher Taxonomy
Family: OrchidaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: ORCHID FAMILY
Habit: Perennial herb, terrestrial [growing on other pls], non-green (nutrition from association of roots with fungi) or green, generally from rhizomes or tubers with few to many fleshy to slender roots; cauline leaves +- reduced to sheathing stem bracts or not. Leaf: 1--many, basal to cauline, linear to +- round, alternate to opposite (if only 1 pair), generally sessile. Inflorescence: flowers 1--many, spike or raceme, bracted. Flower: bisexual, bilateral, in bud generally rotating 180° by twisting ovary (position of parts indicated after twisting); sepals generally 3, generally free, generally petal-like, uppermost generally erect, lateral with chin- or spur-like projection (mentum) or not; petals 3, 1 (lip) different, spurred or not; stamens generally 1 (3 in Cypripedium, 2 functional, 1 a staminode), fused with style, stigma into column, pollen generally lumped, generally removed as unit by insect; ovary inferior, 1-chambered, placentas 3, parietal, stigma 3 lobed, generally under column tip. Fruit: capsule. Seed: many, minute.
Genera In Family: +- 800 genera, +- 25000 species: especially tropics (worldwide except Antarctica). Many cultivated for ornamental, especially Cattleya, Cymbidium, Epidendrum, Oncidium, Paphiopedilum; Vanilla planifolia Andrews fruits used to flavor food. Note: Platanthera may be paraphyletic without inclusion of Piperia (Bateman et al. 2009 Ann Bot 104:431--445); study needed.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald A. Coleman, Dieter H. Wilken & William F. Jennings, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Ronald A. Coleman, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: EpipactisView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Leaf: cauline, alternate, gradually reduced upward, lanceolate to wide-ovate, with > 1 lengthwise fold, green, white, or pink. Inflorescence: +- 1-sided, open; flowers 4+; flower bract +- leaf-like. Flower: sepals +- alike, lanceolate to ovate, lower spreading to downcurved; lateral petals ascending or curved forward, +- = sepals in shape, color, lip not spurred, abruptly narrowed at +- middle, of 2 very different parts, proximally concave to +- pouch-like, distally grooved to +- not; column curved over lip. Fruit: spreading to pendent.
Species In Genus: +- 25 species: North America, Eurasia, northern Africa. Etymology: (Greek: ancient name)

Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz
NATURALIZED
Habit: Plant 40--100 cm. Leaf: 6--10 cm, lanceolate to ovate, green, white, or pink. Inflorescence: flowers few--20; flower bract linear to narrow-lanceolate. Flower: sepals +- green, often purple-tinged or -striped; lateral petals 8--11 mm, lip proximally white to +- pink outside, brown to +- purple inside, distally white to +- pink; column 3--5 mm. Fruit: 1--1.5 cm. Chromosomes: 2n=36,38,40,44.
Ecology: Generally dry slopes, roadcuts, mixed-conifer forest; Elevation: < 1300 m. Bioregional Distribution: s NCoRO, s NCoRI, c SNH, CCo, SnFrB, expected elsewhere; Distribution Outside California: to eastern Canada, central and northeastern United States; native to Europe. Flowering Time: Apr--Dec
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald A. Coleman, Dieter H. Wilken & William F. Jennings
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Previous taxon: Epipactis gigantea
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Citation for this treatment: Ronald A. Coleman, Dieter H. Wilken & William F. Jennings 2016. Epipactis helleborine, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=24407, accessed on February 07, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on February 07, 2016.


Epipactis helleborine
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© 2007 Neal Kramer
Epipactis helleborine
click for enlargement
© 2007 Neal Kramer
Epipactis helleborine
click for enlargement
© 2015 Barry Rice
Epipactis helleborine
click for enlargement
© 2015 Barry Rice
Epipactis helleborine
click for enlargement
© 2015 Barry Rice

More photos of Epipactis helleborine in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Epipactis helleborine:
s NCoRO, s NCoRI, c SNH, CCo, SnFrB, expected elsewhere;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.