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Epilobium septentrionale

Higher Taxonomy
Family: OnagraceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual to perennial herb (to tree). Leaf: cauline or basal, alternate, opposite, or whorled, generally simple and toothed (to pinnately compound); stipules 0 or generally deciduous. Inflorescence: spike, raceme, panicle, or flowers 1 in axils; bracted. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, often opening at either dawn or dusk; hypanthium generally prolonged beyond ovary (measured from ovary tip to sepal base); sepals 4(2--7); petals 4(2--7, rarely 0), often fading darker; stamens 2 × or = sepals in number, anthers 2-chambered, opening lengthwise, pollen interconnected by threads; ovary inferior, chambers generally as many as sepals (sometimes becoming 1), placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1--many per chamber, style 1, stigma 4-lobed (or lobes as many as sepals), club-shaped, spheric, or hemispheric. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal (sometimes berry or indehiscent and nut-like). Seed: sometimes winged or hair-tufted.
Genera In Family: 22 genera, +- 657 species: worldwide, especially western North America; many cultivated (Clarkia, Epilobium, Fuchsia, Oenothera). Note: Gaura moved to Oenothera. Fuchsia magellanica Lam. naturalized in northern California.
eFlora Treatment Author: Warren L. Wagner & Peter C. Hoch, family description, key to genera, treatment of genera by Warren L. Wagner, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: EpilobiumView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual to subshrub. Leaf: generally opposite proximally (or clustered in axils), generally +- fine-toothed; veins generally obscure. Inflorescence: generally raceme, bracted. Flower: radial or rarely +- bilateral; sepals 4, erect; petals 4, notched; stamens 8, anthers attached at middle, pollen grains generally shed in 4s, cream-yellow; ovary chambers 4, stigma generally club-like, occasionally 4-lobed. Fruit: straight, cylindric to club-like. Seed: generally in 1 row per chamber, generally with white, deciduous hair-tuft.
Species In Genus: 165 species: worldwide except tropics. Etymology: (Greek: upon pod, from inferior ovary) Note: Incl Boisduvalia, Zauschneria. Most taxa polyploid; many with anthers +- = stigma self-pollinated; many hybrids. Taxa with alternate leaves moved to Chamerion.
eFlora Treatment Author: Peter C. Hoch
Reference: Raven 1976 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 63:326--340; Wagner et al. 2007 Syst Bot Monogr 83:81--95

Epilobium septentrionale (D.D. Keck) R.N. Bowman & Hoch
Habit: Perennial herb 0.5--2(3) dm, matted, wiry, scaly proximally, from +- woody caudex, occasionally decumbent, densely white-canescent and nonglandular below inflorescence. Leaf: generally opposite, +- sessile, 10--25 mm, lanceolate to ovate, white-canescent; distal bract-like, +- green, glandular and spreading-hairy. Inflorescence: densely glandular. Flower: red-orange; hypanthium 17--23 mm; sepals 7--12 mm; petals 8--14 mm; stamens << pistil; stigma 4-lobed. Fruit: 20--26 mm, short-beaked, hairy; pedicel 0--2 mm. Seed: 1.8--2.4 mm, low-papillate, hair-tuft deciduous. Chromosomes: 2n=30.
Ecology: Dry, sandy or rocky ledges (serpentine slopes); Elevation: 20--1900 m. Bioregional Distribution: NCo, NCoRO. Flowering Time: Jul--Sep Note: Bird-pollinated.
Synonyms: Epilobium canum (Greene) P.H. Raven subsp. septentrionale (D.D. Keck) P.H. Raven; Zauschneria septentrionalis D.D. Keck;
eFlora Treatment Author: Peter C. Hoch
Reference: Raven 1976 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 63:326--340; Wagner et al. 2007 Syst Bot Monogr 83:81--95
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botanical illustration including Epilobium septentrionale


Citation for this treatment: Peter C. Hoch 2012, Epilobium septentrionale, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on September 23, 2018.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2018, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on September 23, 2018.

Epilobium septentrionale
click for enlargement
© 2017 Dana York
Epilobium septentrionale
click for enlargement
© 2017 Dana York
Epilobium septentrionale
click for enlargement
© 2017 Dana York

More photos of Epilobium septentrionale in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Epilobium septentrionale:
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.