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Epilobium ciliatum

Higher Taxonomy
Family: OnagraceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual to perennial herb (to tree). Leaf: cauline or basal, alternate, opposite, or whorled, generally simple and toothed (to pinnately compound); stipules 0 or generally deciduous. Inflorescence: spike, raceme, panicle, or flowers 1 in axils; bracted. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, often opening at either dawn or dusk; hypanthium generally prolonged beyond ovary (measured from ovary tip to sepal base); sepals 4(2--7); petals 4(2--7, rarely 0), often fading darker; stamens 2 × or = sepals in number, anthers 2-chambered, opening lengthwise, pollen interconnected by threads; ovary inferior, chambers generally as many as sepals (sometimes becoming 1), placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1--many per chamber, style 1, stigma 4-lobed (or lobes as many as sepals), club-shaped, spheric, or hemispheric. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal (sometimes berry or indehiscent and nut-like). Seed: sometimes winged or hair-tufted.
Genera In Family: 22 genera, +- 657 species: worldwide, especially western North America; many cultivated (Clarkia, Epilobium, Fuchsia, Oenothera). Note: Gaura moved to Oenothera. Fuchsia magellanica Lam. naturalized in northern California.
eFlora Treatment Author: Warren L. Wagner & Peter C. Hoch, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Warren L. Wagner, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: EpilobiumView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual to subshrub. Leaf: generally opposite proximally (or clustered in axils), generally +- fine-toothed; veins generally obscure. Inflorescence: generally raceme, bracted. Flower: radial or rarely +- bilateral; sepals 4, erect; petals 4, notched; stamens 8, anthers attached at middle, pollen grains generally shed in 4s, cream-yellow; ovary chambers 4, stigma generally club-like, occasionally 4-lobed. Fruit: straight, cylindric to club-like. Seed: generally in 1 row per chamber, generally with white, deciduous hair-tuft.
Species In Genus: 165 species: worldwide except tropics. Etymology: (Greek: upon pod, from inferior ovary) Note: Incl Boisduvalia, Zauschneria. Most taxa polyploid; many with anthers +- = stigma self-pollinated; many hybrids. Taxa with alternate leaves moved to Chamerion.
eFlora Treatment Author: Peter C. Hoch

Epilobium ciliatum Raf.
Habit: Perennial herb, erect, +- loosely clumped, with basal rosettes or fleshy shoot, generally strigose in lines, glandular distally, occasionally spreading-hairy. Leaf: 1--12 cm, narrowly lanceolate to ovate, fine-toothed; veins conspicuous; petiole 0--5(8) mm. Inflorescence: densely strigose, +- spreading-hairy, generally glandular. Flower: hypanthium 0.5--2.6 mm; sepals 2--7.5 mm; petals white to rose-purple; stamens <= pistil; stigma club- or head-like. Fruit: 15--100 mm, hairy; pedicel 0--15(40) mm. Seed: 0.8--1.6 mm, ridged, hair-tuft deciduous. Chromosomes: 2n=36.

eFlora Treatment Author: Peter C. Hoch
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Citation for this treatment: Peter C. Hoch 2016. Epilobium ciliatum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on October 27, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on October 27, 2016.

Epilobium ciliatum subsp. glandulosum
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© 2009 Barry Breckling
Epilobium ciliatum subsp. ciliatum
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© 2005 George W. Hartwell
Epilobium ciliatum subsp. watsonii
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© 2007 Neal Kramer
Epilobium ciliatum subsp. ciliatum
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© 2003 George W. Hartwell
Epilobium ciliatum subsp. ciliatum
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© 2008 Keir Morse
Epilobium ciliatum subsp. glandulosum
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© 2013 Gary A. Monroe

More photos of Epilobium ciliatum in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Epilobium ciliatum:
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.