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Enemion occidentale

Higher Taxonomy
Family: RanunculaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual, perennial herb, woody vine [shrub], occasionally aquatic. Leaf: generally basal and cauline, alternate or opposite, simple or compound; petioles at base generally flat, occasionally sheathing or stipule-like. Inflorescence: cyme, raceme, panicle, or flowers 1. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial; sepals 3--6(20), free, early-deciduous or withering in fruit, generally green; petals 0--many, generally free; stamens generally 5--many, staminodes generally 0; pistils 1--many, ovary superior, chamber 1, style 0--1, generally +- persistent as beak, ovules 1--many. Fruit: achene, follicle, berry, +- utricle in Trautvetteria, in aggregate or not, 1--many-seeded.
Genera In Family: +- 60 genera, 1700 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate, tropical mountains; many ornamental (Adonis, Aquilegia, Clematis, Consolida, Delphinium, Helleborus, Nigella). Toxicity: some highly TOXIC (Aconitum, Actaea, Delphinium, Ranunculus). Note: Taxa of Isopyrum in TJM (1993) moved to Enemion; Kumlienia moved to Ranunculus.
eFlora Treatment Author: Margriet Wetherwax & Dieter H. Wilken, family description, key to genera
Scientific Editor: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: EnemionView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Perennial herb from clustered, slender to fusiform or +- spheric fleshy roots, glabrous. Stem: ascending to erect; branches 0(--few). Leaf: 2-ternate; basal petioles generally > blades, cauline short to +- 0; leaflets wide-ovate to wedge-shaped-obovate, margins entire to deeply 2--3 lobed. Inflorescence: terminal or axillary, cymes or racemes, 2--10 flowered, or flowers 1. Flower: sepals generally 5, petal-like; petals 0; stamens 10--many; pistils [2]3--10, stalk-like base 0 or short. Fruit: follicle, glabrous, veins obvious, stalk-like base curved or not, occasionally 0, beak straight to recurved. Seed: +- red-brown, smooth, wrinkled or minutely pubescent.
Species In Genus: 6 species: temperate North America, Eurasia.
eFlora Treatment Author: Bruce A. Ford
Unabridged Reference: Calder & Taylor 1963 Madroño 17:69--76

Enemion occidentale (Hook. & Arn.) J.R. Drumm. & Hutch.
Habit: Plant 8--34 cm. Stem: 1--3, erect, generally simple. Leaf: 3--12 cm; segment lobes 2--3, generally < 1/2 segment length. Flower: sepals 3--7 mm wide, oblong to ovate, white, occasionally tinged pink; stamens 3--6 mm; pistils 5--8. Fruit: 8--10.5 mm.
Ecology: Shaded slopes, chaparral, oak woodland, conifer forest; Elevation: 200--1500 m. Bioregional Distribution: NCoRI, SN, CW (exc CCo), n WTR. Flowering Time: Mar--May
Synonyms: Isopyrum occidentale Hook. & Arn.;
eFlora Treatment Author: Bruce A. Ford
Unabridged Reference: Calder & Taylor 1963 Madroño 17:69--76
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botanical illustration including Enemion occidentale


Citation for this treatment: Bruce A. Ford 2012, Enemion occidentale, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on August 16, 2018.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2018, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on August 16, 2018.

Enemion occidentale
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© 2009 Barry Breckling
Enemion occidentale
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© 2017 Neal Kramer
Enemion occidentale
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© 2004 Steve Matson
Enemion occidentale
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© 2011 Barry Breckling
Enemion occidentale
click for enlargement
© 2004 Steve Matson
Enemion occidentale
click for enlargement
© 2017 Steve Matson

More photos of Enemion occidentale in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Enemion occidentale:
NCoRI, SN, CW (exc CCo), n WTR.
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.