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    Vascular Plants of California
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Cotula coronopifolia

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Asteraceae (Compositae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual to tree. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, alternate, opposite, rarely whorled, simple to 2+ × compound. Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, resembling a flower, of several types (see below), 1--many in generally +- cyme-like cluster; each head generally with +- calyx-like involucre of 1--many series of phyllaries (involucre bracts); receptacle of head flat to conic or columnar, paleate (bearing paleae = receptacle bracts) or epaleate; flowers 1--many per head. Flower: bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, +- small, of several types (see below); calyx 0 or modified into +- persistent pappus of bristles, scales, and/or awns; corolla radial or bilateral (0), lobes generally (0)3--5; stamens 4--5, filaments generally free, generally fused to corolla at tube/throat junction, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, anther base generally rounded or cordate (deeply sagittate or with tail-like appendages), tip (= flattened appendage) generally projecting beyond pollen sac; pistil 1, 2-carpeled, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, placenta basal, style 1, tip generally +- 2-branched (except in some staminate disk flowers), branch tips truncate or generally bearing +- brush-like appendages; stigmas 2, generally on adaxial faces of style branches. Fruit: achene (also called a cypsela) (drupe in Chrysanthemoides), cylindric to ovoid, sometimes compressed, generally deciduous with pappus attached.
Genera In Family: +- 1500 genera, 23000 species: worldwide, many habitats. Note: Flower and head types differ in form and sexual condition. A disk flower has a generally radial corolla, with a cylindric tube, expanded throat, and generally 5 lobes. Disk flowers are generally bisexual and fertile but occasionally staminate with reduced ovaries. Discoid heads comprise only disk flowers. A radiant head is a variant of a discoid head, with peripheral disk flower corollas expanded, often bilateral. A ray flower corolla is bilateral, generally with a slender tube and flattened petal-like ray (single lip composed of generally 3 lobes). Ray flowers are generally pistillate or sterile (occasionally lacking styles). Radiate heads have peripheral ray flowers and central disk flowers. Disciform heads superficially resemble discoid heads, with pistillate or sterile flowers that lack rays, together with or separate from disk flowers. A ligulate flower is bisexual, with a bilateral, generally ephemeral corolla and 5-lobed ligule. Liguliflorous heads comprise only ligulate flowers. See glossary p. 31 for illustrations of family characteristics. Echinops sphaerocephalus L., Gaillardia aristata Pursh, Gaillardia pulchella Foug., Hymenothrix loomisii S.F. Blake, Tagetes erecta L., Thelesperma megapotamicum (Spreng.) Kuntze are waifs. Melampodium perfoliatum Kunth, historic urban waif. Ageratum conyzoides L., Guizotia abyssinica (L. f.) Cass., Santolina chamaecyparisus L., orth. var. are rare or uncommon escapes from cultivation. Dyssodia papposa, Ismelia carinata (Schousb.) Sch. Bip. [Chrysanthemum carinatum Schousb.], Mantisalca salmantica (L.) Briq. & Cavill. are historical or extirpated waifs in California. Inula helenium L. not documented in California. Taxa of Aster in TJM (1993) treated here in Almutaster, Eucephalus, Eurybia, Ionactis, Oreostemma, Sericocarpus, Symphyotrichum; Chamomilla in Matricaria; Bahia in Hymenothrix; Cnicus in Centaurea; Conyza in Erigeron and Laennecia; Dugaldia in Hymenoxys; Erechtites in Senecio; Hymenoclea in Ambrosia; Lembertia in Monolopia; Osteospermum ecklonis in Dimorphotheca; Picris echioides in Helminthotheca; Prionopsis in Grindelia; Raillardiopsis in Anisocarpus and Carlquistia; Schkuhria multiflora in Picradeniopsis; Trimorpha in Erigeron; Venidium in Arctotis; Whitneya in Arnica. Amauriopsis in TJM2 (2012) treated here in Hymenothrix; Arida in Leucosyris; Bahia in Picradeniopsis.
Unabridged Note: Largest family of vascular plants in California and of eudicots globally.
eFlora Treatment Author: David J. Keil, except as noted
Scientific Editor: David J. Keil, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: CotulaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual, perennial herb, sometimes aromatic, glabrous or minutely strigose to long-soft-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: generally mostly cauline, alternate, petioled or sessile, linear or lanceolate to obovate, entire to toothed or 1--3-pinnately lobed. Inflorescence: heads disciform [discoid or radiate], 1, peduncled; involucre widely hemispheric to saucer-shaped; phyllaries persistent, 13--30+ in 2--3+ series, margins and tips scarious; receptacle flat to convex [conic], epaleate, sometimes +- covered with persistent fruit stalks. Pistillate Flower: 8--80 in 1--3+ series; corolla generally 0 [ray flowers 5--8+, pistillate, fertile; corolla white]. Disk Flower: 12--200+ bisexual [staminate]; corolla very short, yellow or +- white, tube widely cylindric, << throat, +- expanded at base, sometimes enveloping top of ovary, lobes generally 4; stamen tip rounded-triangular; style tips truncate, brush-like. Fruit: obovoid to oblong, compressed front-to-back, 2-ribbed or -winged, faces +- papillate; pappus 0.
Species In Genus: 55 species: mostly southern hemisphere in Old World. Etymology: (Greek: cup) Note: Cotula mexicana (DC.) Cabrera (annual, leaves generally 1-pinnate, disk flowers staminate), a noxious weed of California golf courses, expected in wildlands.
eFlora Treatment Author: Linda E. Watson
Reference: Watson 2006 FNANM 19:543--544

Cotula coronopifolia L.
Habit: Plant (3)5--40+ cm. Stem: prostrate or decumbent to erect, rooting at nodes. Leaf: sessile, (1)2--7+ cm, linear to lanceolate or oblong, base fused into sheath around stem, blade resin-gland-dotted. Inflorescence: peduncle 2--10 cm; phyllaries 21--30+ in 2--3+ series. Disk Flower: corolla bright yellow, 1--1.5 mm. Fruit: outer 1.2--2 mm, prominently stalked, winged; inner 0.7--1.5 mm, short-stalked, wings 0 or narrow. Chromosomes: 2n=20.
Ecology: Common. Saline and freshwater marshes, mud flats; Elevation: < 1200 m. Bioregional Distribution: NCo, NCoRI, n SNF, ScV, CW, SCo, ChI, WTR, PR; Distribution Outside California: native to southern Africa. Flowering Time: Mar--Dec
eFlora Treatment Author: Linda E. Watson
Reference: Watson 2006 FNANM 19:543--544
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Weed listed by Cal-IPC

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botanical illustration including Cotula coronopifolia


Citation for this treatment: Linda E. Watson 2012, Cotula coronopifolia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on July 16, 2018.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2018, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on July 16, 2018.

Cotula coronopifolia
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© 2011 Neal Kramer
Cotula coronopifolia
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© 2015 Barry Breckling
Cotula coronopifolia
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© 2010 Gary A. Monroe
Cotula coronopifolia
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© 2015 Barry Breckling
Cotula coronopifolia
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© 2007 California Academy of Sciences
Cotula coronopifolia
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© 2009 Keir Morse

More photos of Cotula coronopifolia in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Cotula coronopifolia:
NCo, NCoRI, n SNF, ScV, CW, SCo, ChI, WTR, PR;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.