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Vascular Plants of California
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Elatine californica


Higher Taxonomy
Family: ElatinaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: WATERWORT FAMILY
Habit: Annual, short-lived perennial herb, in or near water; roots fibrous, from taproot or not, generally from lower leaf axils also. Stem: generally soft. Leaf: simple, opposite, +- 4-ranked; stipules scarious. Inflorescence: flowers in upper axils, 1 or few in clusters. Flower: small, inconspicuous, radial, bisexual; sepals, petals 2--5, equal in number, generally free; ovary spheric, styles 3--5, short. Fruit: capsule, septicidal, +- spheric, ovoid, or depressed-ovoid, walls thin; chambers 2--5, each several to many-seeded. Seed: small; surface net-like or glossy.
Genera In Family: 2 genera, 50 species: +- worldwide.
eFlora Treatment Author: Gordon C. Tucker & Evanielis U. Grissom
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: ElatineView DescriptionDichotomous Key


Common Name: WATERWORT
Stem: Erect underwater, +- prostrate on wet ground, branched or not; base not woody. Leaf: petiole < 1/3 blade, flat, +- blade-like; blades narrow-elliptic to +- round, +- entire, bases wedge-shaped to +- round, tips round. Inflorescence: flowers 1(2) per node. Flower: sepals, petals wide-elliptic, membranous; sepals pale green; petals pale green-white; stamens (1) 3, 6, 8, filaments 1/2 × to +- equal petals, anthers wide-ovoid; styles 3--4. Fruit: +- spheric or depressed-ovoid; chambers 3--4, each 3--15-seeded; pedicel generally +- 0. Seed: +- visible through fruit wall, elliptic, straight or curved, brown to yellow-brown; surface net-like due to ridges between +- linear rows of pits.
Species In Genus: +- 25 species: worldwide. Etymology: (Greek: fir tree, from a European species that suggests such a plant in miniature) Note: At least 20× magnification needed for pits on seeds.
Elatine californica A. Gray
NATIVE
Stem: decumbent to erect, 1--5 cm. Leaf: oblong, tapered to base; petiole +- 1/2 blade. Inflorescence: flowers 1 per node. Flower: sepals 4, fused in basal +- 1/3, separating in fruit; petals 4, >, wider than sepals; stamens 8. Fruit: chambers 4; pedicel recurved, 2--3 × fruit. Seed: oblong to elliptic, curved 90--180°; pits +- 15 per row, as wide as or wider than long.
Ecology: Pools, ponds, rice fields, streambanks; Elevation: 50--1900 m. Bioregional Distribution: s NCoRH (Snow Mtn), GV, SnFrB; Distribution Outside California: to Washington, Baja California. Flowering Time: Mar--Aug
Jepson eFlora Author: Gordon C. Tucker & Evanielis U. Grissom
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Botanical illustration including Elatine californica

botanical illustration including Elatine californica

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Citation for this treatment: Gordon C. Tucker & Evanielis U. Grissom 2012, Elatine californica, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=23919, accessed on May 20, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on May 20, 2019.

Elatine californica
click for enlargement
© 2016 Neal Kramer
Elatine californica
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© 2015 Vernon Smith
Elatine californica
click for enlargement
© 2016 Neal Kramer
Elatine californica
click for enlargement
© 2003 Keir Morse
Elatine californica
click for enlargement
© 2015 Vernon Smith
Elatine californica
click for enlargement
© 2003 Keir Morse

More photos of Elatine californica in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Elatine californica:
s NCoRH (Snow Mtn), GV, SnFrB
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

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Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.