Jepson eFlora: Taxon page    
    Vascular Plants of California
Key to families | Table of families and genera
Previous taxon Index to accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Next taxon
Eichhornia crassipes

Higher Taxonomy
Family: PontederiaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual, perennial herb, submersed, emergent, floating, or on wet ground. Leaf: simple, alternate or whorled, +- in basal rosette or not; blade linear (especially underwater) to round, sometimes sagittate or cordate, base generally sheathing, veins parallel; petiole inflated or not. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, panicle, or 1-flowered, terminal but often appearing +- axillary, subtended by sheathing bract. Flower: bisexual, radial or +- bilateral; perianth lobes 6 (in 2 series) [3,4], petal-like; stamens 3, 6 (in 2 series) [1,4], from various levels on perianth tube, equal or not, sometimes 3 sterile, modified; ovary superior, 1 or 3-chambered. Fruit: many-seeded, loculicidal capsule [1-seeded utricle]. Seed: < 1 cm, longitudinally ribbed [or not].
Genera In Family: +- 6 genera, 30 species: most pantropical, some temperate. Note: Some cultivated as orns, some weeds, especially in rice fields. Pontederia cordata L. establishes from garden waste.
eFlora Treatment Author: Charles N. Horn & Elizabeth McClintock
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: EichhorniaView Description 

Habit: Perennial herb [annual], generally free-floating. Stem: stout, erect, often connected by stolons. Leaf: +- in basal rosette; blade generally ovate, round or cordate; petiole inflated or not, generally > blade. Inflorescence: spike [panicle, 1-flowered]. Flower: +- bilateral; perianth funnel-shaped, lobes 6; stamens 6, unequal in length; ovary 3-chambered.
Species In Genus: +- 7 species: native to America tropics, perhaps Am subtropics, Africa; some widely naturalized. Etymology: (J.A.F. Eichhorn, Germany, 1779--1856)

Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms
Stem: > 30 cm. Leaf: < 10 cm wide. Inflorescence: 5--15 cm, few- to many-flowered. Flower: perianth lilac or pale blue to white.
Ecology: Locally abundant. Ponds, sloughs, waterways; Elevation: < 200 m. Bioregional Distribution: GV, SnFrB, SCo, PR; Distribution Outside California: widely naturalized, native to tropical America. Flowering Time: Jun--Oct Note: Plants multiply, spread rapidly vegetatively; perhaps world's most troublesome aquatic weed.
eFlora Treatment Author: Charles N. Horn & Elizabeth McClintock
Jepson Online Interchange
Noxious Weed

Previous taxon: Eichhornia
Next taxon: Heteranthera

Name Search
botanical illustration including Eichhornia crassipes


Citation for this treatment: Charles N. Horn & Elizabeth McClintock 2012, Eichhornia crassipes, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on September 24, 2018.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2018, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on September 24, 2018.

Eichhornia crassipes
click for enlargement
© 2015 Barry Breckling
Eichhornia crassipes
click for enlargement
© 2009 Barry Rice
Eichhornia crassipes
click for enlargement
© 2018 Neal Kramer
Eichhornia crassipes
click for enlargement
© 2013 Neal Kramer
Eichhornia crassipes
click for enlargement
© 2018 Neal Kramer
Eichhornia crassipes
click for enlargement
© 2018 Neal Kramer

More photos of Eichhornia crassipes in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Eichhornia crassipes:
GV, SnFrB, SCo, PR;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.