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Vascular Plants of California
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Echium plantagineum
SALVATION JANE


Higher Taxonomy
Family: BoraginaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: BORAGE or WATERLEAF FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub or small tree, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1--2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, generally without scales at tube base, with 0 or 5 appendages at tube top, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary generally superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1--4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
Genera In Family: +- 120 genera, +- 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum, Wigandia). Toxicity: Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. Note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. Wigandia urens added, as naturalized.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera, treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.
Genus: EchiumView DescriptionDichotomous Key


Habit: Annual, biennial, [perennial herb], shrub; strigose to bristly-hairy. Leaf: basal and cauline, linear to lanceolate, entire. Inflorescence: panicle-like cymes, terminal; branches 3--many, +- spike-like. Flower: radial to +- bilateral; calyx deep-lobed, often longer in fruit; corolla throat straight or +- curved, lobes equal or not; stamens 5, attached below mid-tube, included or exserted; style exserted. Fruit: nutlet erect, short, ovate, 3-angled, scar basal, flat.
Species In Genus: 40 species: southern Eurasia, Africa. Etymology: (Greek: viper, from nutlet shaped like viper's head) Note: Several entities cultivated for ornamental, especially on California coast, some potentially naturalized, some may be hybrids.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley
Unabridged Reference: Bramwell 1972 Lagascalia 2:37--115
Echium plantagineum L.
NATURALIZED
Habit: Annual, biennial, 4--8 dm. Leaf: 2--15 cm, narrow-elliptic to oblong, bulbous-based-bristly. Inflorescence: spreading, 5--15 cm; branches 2--8, ascending. Flower: +- bilateral; calyx 7--12(17) mm; corolla tube +- 2 × calyx, limb 18--30 mm diam, blue-purple; lower 2 stamens short-exserted, upper 3 included. Fruit: black, rough, wrinkled to fine-tubercled. Chromosomes: 2n=16.
Ecology: Disturbed areas; Elevation: < 200 m. Bioregional Distribution: c CCo, SCo (San Diego Co.); Distribution Outside California: native to southern Europe, widely naturalized. Flowering Time: May--Jul
Jepson eFlora Author: Ronald B. Kelley
Unabridged Reference: Bramwell 1972 Lagascalia 2:37--115
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Botanical illustration including Echium plantagineum

botanical illustration including Echium plantagineum

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Citation for this treatment: Ronald B. Kelley 2012, Echium plantagineum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=23837, accessed on July 21, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on July 21, 2019.

Echium plantagineum
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© 2016 California Academy of Sciences
Echium plantagineum
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© 2016 California Academy of Sciences
Echium plantagineum
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© 2015 Vernon Smith

More photos of Echium plantagineum in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Echium plantagineum:
c CCo, SCo (San Diego Co.)
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

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Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
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Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.