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Echium plantagineum
SALVATION JANE

Higher Taxonomy
Family: BoraginaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: BORAGE or WATERLEAF FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub or small tree, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1--2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, generally without scales at tube base, with 0 or 5 appendages at tube top, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary generally superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1--4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
Genera In Family: +- 120 genera, +- 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum, Wigandia). Toxicity: Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. Note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. Wigandia urens added, as naturalized.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.
Genus: EchiumView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual, biennial, [perennial herb], shrub; strigose to bristly-hairy. Leaf: basal and cauline, linear to lanceolate, entire. Inflorescence: panicle-like cymes, terminal; branches 3--many, +- spike-like. Flower: radial to +- bilateral; calyx deep-lobed, often longer in fruit; corolla throat straight or +- curved, lobes equal or not; stamens 5, attached below mid-tube, included or exserted; style exserted. Fruit: nutlet erect, short, ovate, 3-angled, scar basal, flat.
Species In Genus: 40 species: southern Eurasia, Africa. Etymology: (Greek: viper, from nutlet shaped like viper's head) Note: Several entities cultivated for ornamental, especially on California coast, some potentially naturalized, some may be hybrids.

Echium plantagineum L.
NATURALIZED
Habit: Annual, biennial, 4--8 dm. Leaf: 2--15 cm, narrow-elliptic to oblong, bulbous-based-bristly. Inflorescence: spreading, 5--15 cm; branches 2--8, ascending. Flower: +- bilateral; calyx 7--12(17) mm; corolla tube +- 2 × calyx, limb 18--30 mm diam, blue-purple; lower 2 stamens short-exserted, upper 3 included. Fruit: black, rough, wrinkled to fine-tubercled. Chromosomes: 2n=16.
Ecology: Disturbed areas; Elevation: < 200 m. Bioregional Distribution: c CCo, SCo (San Diego Co.); Distribution Outside California: native to southern Europe, widely naturalized. Flowering Time: May--Jul
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley
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Citation for this treatment: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley 2016. Echium plantagineum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=23837, accessed on September 27, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on September 27, 2016.


Echium plantagineum
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© 2016 California Academy of Sciences
Echium plantagineum
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© 2016 California Academy of Sciences

More photos of Echium plantagineum in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Echium plantagineum:
c CCo, SCo (San Diego Co.);
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.