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Echinochloa crus-galli

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Poaceae (Gramineae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: GRASS FAMILY
Habit: Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1--many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally +- transparent, +- enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
Genera In Family: 650--900 genera; +- 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). Note: Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761--770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr., except as noted
Scientific Editor: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Genus: EchinochloaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: BARNYARD GRASS
Habit: Annual to perennial herb. Stem: decumbent to erect; internode hollow or solid. Leaf: basal and cauline; sheath generally glabrous; ligule generally 0; blade generally flat, linear to linear lanceolate, midrib prominent, upper surface generally glabrous. Inflorescence: panicle-like, of simple or compound branches; branches angular, generally ascending to appressed, axis generally glabrous; spikelets generally many, 1--2 per node, generally subsessile, densely packed on branches. Spikelet: ovoid to compressed, falling as one unit, breaking free below glumes, or not at all; florets 2(3), lower floret sterile or staminate, upper florets bisexual, anthers 3; glumes membranous, unequal, lower < upper, short-bristly to hairy, generally green to +- purple, upper glume unawned or shortly awned; lower lemma similar to the upper glume in length and texture, unawned or awned, upper lemma leathery, dorsally rounded, mostly smooth, tip short or elongate, firm or membranous, unawned; upper palea free from lemma at tip, lower palea vestigial to well developed.
Species In Genus: 40--50 species: warm temperate, subtropics, worldwide. Etymology: (Greek: hedgehog grass, from bristly spikelet)
eFlora Treatment Author: Scott Simono, adapted from Michael (2003)

Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv.
NATURALIZED
Stem: spreading, decumbent or stiffly erect, 3--20 dm. Leaf: sheath 3--7 cm, glabrous; blade to 65 cm, 5--30 mm wide. Inflorescence: 5--25 cm, hairs few to many at or below nodes; 1° branches 1.5--10 cm, generally ascending to spreading, occasionally erect, scabrous to sparsely strigose; 2° branches generally inconspicuous. Spikelet: 2.5--4 mm, 1--2.3 mm wide; lower glume +- 0.8--2 mm; upper glume +- = spikelet; florets subequal, lower sterile; lower lemma awn 0--50 mm; upper lemma broadly ovate to elliptic, leathery, ending in an early-withering, acuminate, membranous tip differentiated by a line of minute hairs; palea +- = lemma. Fruit: +- brown.
Ecology: Generally wet, disturbed sites, fields, roadsides; Elevation: < 2000 m. Bioregional Distribution: CA (esp CA-FP); Distribution Outside California: worldwide; native to Eurasia. Flowering Time: Jun--Oct
Synonyms: Echinochloa crus-galli subsp. spiralis (Vasinger) Tzvelev; Echinochloa crus-galli var. zelayensis (Kunth) Hitchc.
eFlora Treatment Author: Scott Simono, adapted from Michael (2003)
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Citation for this treatment: Scott Simono, adapted from Michael (2003) 2016. Echinochloa crus-galli, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=23791, accessed on February 08, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on February 08, 2016.


Echinochloa crus-galli
click for enlargement
© 2006 Steve Matson
Echinochloa crus-galli
click for enlargement
© 2006 Steve Matson
Echinochloa crus-galli
click for enlargement
© 2011 Steve Matson
Echinochloa crus-galli
click for enlargement
© 2006 Steve Matson
Echinochloa crus-galli
click for enlargement
© 2011 Steve Matson
Echinochloa crus-galli
click for enlargement
© 2011 Steve Matson

More photos of Echinochloa crus-galli in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Echinochloa crus-galli:
CA (esp CA-FP);
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.