Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Key to families | Table of families and genera
Previous taxon Index to accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Next taxon
Cystopteris fragilis

Higher Taxonomy
Family: CystopteridaceaeView Description 

Common Name: FRAGILE FERN FAMILY
Habit: Perennial herb in soil on rock crevices; rhizome short- to long-creeping. Leaf: spirally arranged, short-spaced or distant, 5--40 cm, +- alike; stipe firm or fleshly, with 2 vascular strands, often expanded at base ("trophopods"); blade 2--3-pinnate-pinnately lobed, thin-herbaceous, broadest at the base or lanceolate, veins free, extending to leaf margin. Sporangia: sori round, with hood-like indusium arching over sorus [naked (Gymnocarpium)].
Genera In Family: 3 genera, +- 37 species: Cystopteris and Gymnocarpium widespread north-temperate (Cystopteris south through Andes, Africa, Australia, New Zealand); Acystopteris southeast Asia (Rothfels et al. 2013 Syst Bot 38:295--306). Note: Polyploidy, often accompanied by hybridization (allopolyploidy), common; many widespread species represent complexes of allopolyploid lineages (Rothfels et al. 2014 Taxon 63:1026--1036; Rothfels et al. 2016 New Phytol in press). Outlying (sister) family to remainder of the large eupolypods II clade (suborder Aspleniineae; Pteridophyte Phyogeny Group 2016 J Syst Evol in press); only distantly related to Woodsiaceae, where often included (Smith et al. 2016 Taxon 55:705--731).
eFlora Treatment Author: Carl J. Rothfels & Alan R. Smith
Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin & Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: CystopterisView Description 

Common Name: FRAGILE FERN
Habit: Rhizome generally short-creeping. Leaf: stipe +- fleshy, often with few scales, base ×-section with 2 vascular strands; blade 2--4-pinnate, pinnae sides unequal, acroscopic pinnules more spreading, larger, more incised; veins free and extending to leaf margin. Sporangia: sori round; indusia hood-like, arched over sorus, attached on side away from margin, often obscure in mature sori.
Species In Genus: 26+ species: generally temperate, a few at high elevations in tropics. Etymology: (Greek: bladder fern, from indusia) Note: Often confused with Woodsia (pinnae sides equal; more fragmented indusia encircling sorus base; veins ending before leaf margin). Species limits, especially in the Cystopteris fragilis complex (sensu Rothfels et al. 2013 Syst Bot 38:295--306), obscured by hybridization and polyploidy (Rothfels et al. 2014 Taxon 63:1026--1036; Rothfels et al. 2016 New Phytol in press).
eFlora Treatment Author: Carl J. Rothfels & Alan R. Smith

Cystopteris fragilis (L.) Bernh.
NATIVE
Habit: Rhizome 2--4 mm diam; scales at tip, lanceolate, +- brown, shining, glabrous, entire. Leaf: 8--30(37) cm; stipe generally < blade, < 1.5 mm wide, glabrous, base straw-colored to red-brown; blade generally 10--24 cm, 3--9 cm wide, lance-ovate, lowest 2--4 pinnae +- < others. Sporangia: indusia generally +- white. Chromosomes: 2n=168.
Ecology: Shady, moist rock crevices, meadows, streamsides; Elevation: 50--4100 m. Bioregional Distribution: KR, NCoR, CaR, n&c SNF, SNH, Teh, SnFrB, SCoR, n ChI (Santa Cruz Island), TR, PR, GB, DMtns; Distribution Outside California: worldwide. Note: Highly polymorphic; Californian plants may represent a species complex. Malformed spores produced by some plants, possibly indicating hybridization, polyploidy.
eFlora Treatment Author: Carl J. Rothfels & Alan R. Smith
Jepson Online Interchange

Previous taxon: Cystopteris
Next taxon: Dennstaedtiaceae

Name Search
botanical illustration including Cystopteris fragilis

Contact/Feedback

Citation for this treatment: Carl J. Rothfels & Alan R. Smith 2016, Cystopteris fragilis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, Revision 4, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=22182, accessed on December 17, 2017.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2017, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on December 17, 2017.


Cystopteris fragilis
click for enlargement
© 2006 Steve Matson
Cystopteris fragilis
click for enlargement
© 2006 Steve Matson
Cystopteris fragilis
click for enlargement
© 2017 Keir Morse
Cystopteris fragilis
click for enlargement
© 2005 Steve Matson
Cystopteris fragilis
click for enlargement
© 2016 James Morefield
Cystopteris fragilis
click for enlargement
© 2017 Keir Morse

More photos of Cystopteris fragilis in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Cystopteris fragilis:
KR, NCoR, CaR, n&c SNF, SNH, Teh, SnFrB, SCoR, n ChI (Santa Cruz Island), TR, PR, GB, DMtns;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
READ ABOUT YELLOW FLAGS
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.