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Cynoglossum officinale
COMMON HOUND'S TONGUE

Higher Taxonomy
Family: BoraginaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: BORAGE or WATERLEAF FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub or small tree, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1--2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, generally without scales at tube base, with 0 or 5 appendages at tube top, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary generally superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1--4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
Genera In Family: +- 120 genera, +- 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum, Wigandia). Toxicity: Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. Note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. Wigandia urens added, as naturalized.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.
Genus: CynoglossumView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: HOUND'S TONGUE
Habit: Perennial herb, biennial, +- hairy, taprooted. Stem: erect. Leaf: entire, basal petioled, cauline petioled or not. Inflorescence: panicle-like cymes, +- terminal, bracted or not. Flower: calyx +- deep-5-lobed, enlarged in fruit; corolla 5-lobed, funnel-shaped or salverform, blue to red-purple, appendages large; style entire. Fruit: nutlets generally 4, spreading, 5--8 mm diam, +- spheric or disk-shaped, short-barbed-prickly, adaxial attachment scar at tip.
Species In Genus: 80 species: worldwide. Etymology: (Greek: dog tongue)

Cynoglossum officinale L.
NATURALIZED
Habit: Biennial. Stem: 1, 3--12 dm, +- soft-hairy. Leaf: soft-hairy; basal petiole 4--10 cm, unwinged, blade 8--20 cm, oblanceolate or narrow-elliptic, base tapered; cauline many, sessile. Inflorescence: +- among leaves; bracts +- leaf-like; pedicels 5--12 mm. Flower: corolla 3--5 mm, +- salverform, limb 4--9 mm diam, tube, lobes dull red-purple, drying +- blue or not, appendages purple. Fruit: nutlets disk-shaped, descending-spreading, abaxially +- flat, margin raised. Chromosomes: 2n=24.
Ecology: Disturbed areas, often associated with logging activities; Elevation: 850--1850 m. Bioregional Distribution: KR, CaRH, n SNH; Distribution Outside California: North America; native to Eurasia. Flowering Time: May--Jul
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley
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Citation for this treatment: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley 2016. Cynoglossum officinale, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=21753, accessed on July 26, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on July 26, 2016.


Cynoglossum officinale
click for enlargement
© 2010 Barry Breckling
Cynoglossum officinale
click for enlargement
© 2010 Barry Breckling
Cynoglossum officinale
click for enlargement
© 2010 Barry Breckling
Cynoglossum officinale
click for enlargement
© 2010 Barry Breckling
Cynoglossum officinale
click for enlargement
© 2011 Barry Breckling

More photos of Cynoglossum officinale in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Cynoglossum officinale:
KR, CaRH, n SNH;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
READ ABOUT YELLOW FLAGS
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.