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Cynoglossum officinale
COMMON HOUND'S TONGUE

Higher Taxonomy
Family: BoraginaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: BORAGE or WATERLEAF FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub or small tree, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1--2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, generally without scales at tube base, with 0 or 5 appendages at tube top, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary generally superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1--4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
Genera In Family: +- 120 genera, +- 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum, Wigandia). Toxicity: Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. Note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. Wigandia urens added, as naturalized.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.
Genus: CynoglossumView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: HOUND'S TONGUE
Habit: Perennial herb, biennial, +- hairy, taprooted. Stem: erect. Leaf: entire, basal petioled, cauline petioled or not. Inflorescence: panicle-like cymes, +- terminal, bracted or not. Flower: calyx +- deep-5-lobed, enlarged in fruit; corolla 5-lobed, funnel-shaped or salverform, blue to red-purple, appendages large; style entire. Fruit: nutlets generally 4, spreading, 5--8 mm diam, +- spheric or disk-shaped, short-barbed-prickly, adaxial attachment scar at tip.
Species In Genus: 80 species: worldwide. Etymology: (Greek: dog tongue)

Cynoglossum officinale L.
NATURALIZED
Habit: Biennial. Stem: 1, 3--12 dm, +- soft-hairy. Leaf: soft-hairy; basal petiole 4--10 cm, unwinged, blade 8--20 cm, oblanceolate or narrow-elliptic, base tapered; cauline many, sessile. Inflorescence: +- among leaves; bracts +- leaf-like; pedicels 5--12 mm. Flower: corolla 3--5 mm, +- salverform, limb 4--9 mm diam, tube, lobes dull red-purple, drying +- blue or not, appendages purple. Fruit: nutlets disk-shaped, descending-spreading, abaxially +- flat, margin raised. Chromosomes: 2n=24.
Ecology: Disturbed areas, often associated with logging activities; Elevation: 850--1850 m. Bioregional Distribution: KR, CaRH, n SNH; Distribution Outside California: North America; native to Eurasia. Flowering Time: May--Jul
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley
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Citation for this treatment: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley 2016. Cynoglossum officinale, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=21753, accessed on May 06, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on May 06, 2016.


Cynoglossum officinale
click for enlargement
© 2011 Barry Breckling
Cynoglossum officinale
click for enlargement
© 2010 Barry Breckling
Cynoglossum officinale
click for enlargement
© 2010 Barry Breckling
Cynoglossum officinale
click for enlargement
© 2010 Barry Breckling
Cynoglossum officinale
click for enlargement
© 2010 Barry Breckling

More photos of Cynoglossum officinale in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Cynoglossum officinale:
KR, CaRH, n SNH;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.