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Cynoglossum occidentale
WESTERN HOUND'S TONGUE

Higher Taxonomy
Family: BoraginaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: BORAGE or WATERLEAF FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub or small tree, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1--2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, generally without scales at tube base, with 0 or 5 appendages at tube top, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary generally superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1--4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
Genera In Family: +- 120 genera, +- 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum, Wigandia). Toxicity: Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. Note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. Wigandia urens added, as naturalized.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.
Genus: CynoglossumView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: HOUND'S TONGUE
Habit: Perennial herb, biennial, +- hairy, taprooted. Stem: erect. Leaf: entire, basal petioled, cauline petioled or not. Inflorescence: panicle-like cymes, +- terminal, bracted or not. Flower: calyx +- deep-5-lobed, enlarged in fruit; corolla 5-lobed, funnel-shaped or salverform, blue to red-purple, appendages large; style entire. Fruit: nutlets generally 4, spreading, 5--8 mm diam, +- spheric or disk-shaped, short-barbed-prickly, adaxial attachment scar at tip.
Species In Genus: 80 species: worldwide. Etymology: (Greek: dog tongue)

Cynoglossum occidentale A. Gray
NATIVE
Habit: Perennial herb. Stem: 1--several, clustered, 1.5--5 dm, spreading-hairy, not glaucous. Leaf: rough-hairy; basal blade 5--15 cm, 1--4 cm wide, +- oblanceolate, base tapered, petiole 4--10 cm, winged; cauline +- many, sessile. Inflorescence: above leaves; bracts scale-like or 0; pedicels 4--8 mm. Flower: corolla 6--9 mm, bell-shaped, limb 4--9 mm diam, tube, lobes +- blue, generally tinged rose to brown, appendages white. Fruit: nutlets +- spheric, ascending-spreading, abaxially rounded, margin not raised.
Ecology: Open, dry, conifer forest; Elevation: 900--2600 m. Bioregional Distribution: KR, NCoRH, NCoRI, CaRH, SNH, MP; Distribution Outside California: to central Oregon. Flowering Time: May--Jul
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley
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Citation for this treatment: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley 2016. Cynoglossum occidentale, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=21752, accessed on May 05, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on May 05, 2016.


Cynoglossum occidentale
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© 2009 Barry Breckling
Cynoglossum occidentale
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© 2009 Keir Morse
Cynoglossum occidentale
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© 2015 Steve Matson
Cynoglossum occidentale
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© 2009 Keir Morse
Cynoglossum occidentale
click for enlargement
© 2004 Steve Matson
Cynoglossum occidentale
click for enlargement
© 2004 Steve Matson

More photos of Cynoglossum occidentale in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Cynoglossum occidentale:
KR, NCoRH, NCoRI, CaRH, SNH, MP;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.