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Cynoglossum occidentale
WESTERN HOUND'S TONGUE


Higher Taxonomy
Family: BoraginaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: BORAGE or WATERLEAF FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub or small tree, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1--2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, generally without scales at tube base, with 0 or 5 appendages at tube top, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary generally superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1--4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
Genera In Family: +- 120 genera, +- 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum, Wigandia). Toxicity: Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. Note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. Wigandia urens added, as naturalized.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera, treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.
Genus: CynoglossumView DescriptionDichotomous Key


Common Name: HOUND'S TONGUE
Habit: Perennial herb, biennial, +- hairy, taprooted. Stem: erect. Leaf: entire, basal petioled, cauline petioled or not. Inflorescence: panicle-like cymes, +- terminal, bracted or not. Flower: calyx +- deep-5-lobed, enlarged in fruit; corolla 5-lobed, funnel-shaped or salverform, blue to red-purple, appendages large; style entire. Fruit: nutlets generally 4, spreading, 5--8 mm diam, +- spheric or disk-shaped, short-barbed-prickly, adaxial attachment scar at tip.
Species In Genus: 80 species: worldwide. Etymology: (Greek: dog tongue)
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley
Cynoglossum occidentale A. Gray
NATIVE
Habit: Perennial herb. Stem: 1--several, clustered, 1.5--5 dm, spreading-hairy, not glaucous. Leaf: rough-hairy; basal blade 5--15 cm, 1--4 cm wide, +- oblanceolate, base tapered, petiole 4--10 cm, winged; cauline +- many, sessile. Inflorescence: above leaves; bracts scale-like or 0; pedicels 4--8 mm. Flower: corolla 6--9 mm, bell-shaped, limb 4--9 mm diam, tube, lobes +- blue, generally tinged rose to brown, appendages white. Fruit: nutlets +- spheric, ascending-spreading, abaxially rounded, margin not raised.
Ecology: Open, dry, conifer forest; Elevation: 900--2600 m. Bioregional Distribution: KR, NCoRH, NCoRI, CaRH, SNH, MP; Distribution Outside California: to central Oregon. Flowering Time: May--Jul
Jepson eFlora Author: Ronald B. Kelley
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Botanical illustration including Cynoglossum occidentale

botanical illustration including Cynoglossum occidentale

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Citation for this treatment: Ronald B. Kelley 2012, Cynoglossum occidentale, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=21752, accessed on August 21, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on August 21, 2019.

Cynoglossum occidentale
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© 2004 Steve Matson
Cynoglossum occidentale
click for enlargement
© 2004 Steve Matson
Cynoglossum occidentale
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© 2015 Steve Matson
Cynoglossum occidentale
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© 2009 Keir Morse
Cynoglossum occidentale
click for enlargement
© 2004 Steve Matson
Cynoglossum occidentale
click for enlargement
© 2015 Steve Matson

More photos of Cynoglossum occidentale in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Cynoglossum occidentale:
KR, NCoRH, NCoRI, CaRH, SNH, MP
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

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Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
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All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.