Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Vascular Plants of California
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Cynoglossum grande

Higher Taxonomy
Family: BoraginaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: Annual to shrub or small tree, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1--2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, generally without scales at tube base, with 0 or 5 appendages at tube top, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary generally superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1--4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
Genera In Family: +- 120 genera, +- 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum, Wigandia). Toxicity: Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. Note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. Wigandia urens added, as naturalized.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera, treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.
Genus: CynoglossumView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Perennial herb, biennial, +- hairy, taprooted. Stem: erect. Leaf: entire, basal petioled, cauline petioled or not. Inflorescence: panicle-like cymes, +- terminal, bracted or not. Flower: calyx +- deep-5-lobed, enlarged in fruit; corolla 5-lobed, funnel-shaped or salverform, blue to red-purple, appendages large; style entire. Fruit: nutlets generally 4, spreading, 5--8 mm diam, +- spheric or disk-shaped, short-barbed-prickly, adaxial attachment scar at tip.
Species In Genus: 80 species: worldwide. Etymology: (Greek: dog tongue)
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley
Cynoglossum grande Lehm.
Habit: Perennial herb. Stem: generally 1, 3--9 dm, glabrous, +- glaucous. Leaf: abaxially hairy, adaxially +- glabrous; basal petiole 8--15 cm, +- unwinged, blade 8--15 cm, 3--10 cm wide, +- ovate to elliptic, base truncate or cordate, abruptly narrowed to petiole; cauline few, petioled. Inflorescence: above leaves; bracts scale-like or 0; pedicels 10--25 mm. Flower: corolla 8--12 mm, +- salverform, tube generally violet, limb generally 10--15 mm diam, lobes +- blue, appendages white. Fruit: nutlet +- spheric, ascending-spreading, abaxially rounded, margin not raised. Chromosomes: 2n=24.
Ecology: Chaparral, woodland; Elevation: 10--1700 m. Bioregional Distribution: NW, CaR, SN, SnFrB, SCoR, PR; Distribution Outside California: to British Columbia. Flowering Time: Feb--May
Jepson eFlora Author: Ronald B. Kelley
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Botanical illustration including Cynoglossum grande

botanical illustration including Cynoglossum grande


Citation for this treatment: Ronald B. Kelley 2012, Cynoglossum grande, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on December 17, 2018.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2018, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on December 17, 2018.

Cynoglossum grande
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© 2016 Neal Kramer
Cynoglossum grande
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© 2007 Neal Kramer
Cynoglossum grande
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© 2003 Keir Morse
Cynoglossum grande
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© 2009 Julie Kierstead Nelson
Cynoglossum grande
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© 2014 Neal Kramer
Cynoglossum grande
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© 2015 Julie Kierstead Nelson

More photos of Cynoglossum grande in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Cynoglossum grande:
NW, CaR, SN, SnFrB, SCoR, PR;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.