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Vascular Plants of California
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Cuscuta salina
SALT DODDER


Higher Taxonomy
Family: ConvolvulaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: MORNING-GLORY FAMILY
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, subshrub, generally twining or trailing. Leaf: 0 or alternate. Inflorescence: cyme or flowers 1 in axils; bracts subtending flowers 0 or 2. Flower: bisexual, radial; sepals (4)5, +- free, overlapping, persistent, often unequal; corolla generally showy, generally bell-shaped, +- shallowly 5-lobed, generally pleated and twisted in bud; stamens 5, epipetalous; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, each generally 2-ovuled, styles 1--2. Fruit: generally capsule. Seed: 1--4(6).
Genera In Family: 55--60 genera, 1600--1700 species: warm temperate to tropics; some cultivated for food or as ornamental (Ipomoea). Note: Monophyletic only if Cuscutaceae included, as treated here. Ipomoea cairica (L.) Sweet, Ipomoea hederacea Jacq. [Ipomoea nil L., misappl.], Ipomoea indica (Burm.) Merr. (including Ipomoea mutabilis Ker Gawl.), Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth, Ipomoea triloba L., all included in TJM (1993), not naturalized.
eFlora Treatment Author: Robert E. Preston, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: CuscutaView DescriptionDichotomous Key


Common Name: DODDER
Habit: Vine, annual (perennial herb if on perennial host), not in contact with ground, attached to, holoparasitic on host by many small, specialized roots (haustoria) along stem, generally glabrous. Stem: thread-like, +- green, yellow, orange, or +- red. Leaf: 0 or scale-like, alternate, +- 2 mm. Inflorescence: generally cyme, head- to panicle-like (flowers 1), subtended by 0--3 bracts. Flower: bisexual, radial, parts generally in 4s or 5s; calyx generally divided 2/5--3/5, persistent, generally +- cream-white; corolla generally +- white, persistent (withered in fruit) or not, tube cup-shaped to cylindric, bulged or horizontally ridged below lobes or generally not, generally with scales subtending stamens, lobes alternate stamens, erect to reflexed; ovary superior, chambers 2, each 2-ovuled, styles 2, generally free, persistent, stigmas 2, generally spheric, persistent. Fruit: capsule, generally indehiscent to irregularly dehiscent (or circumscissile near base), spheric to ovoid, depressed or not, thickened and/or raised around generally inconspicuous opening between styles or not. Seed: 1--4; coat papillate when hydrated, honeycombed when dry, (rarely neither, with cells +- rectangular, in +- jigsaw-puzzle-like arrangement); embryo generally slender, 1--3-coiled.
Species In Genus: +- 180 species: cosmopolitan, especially warmer regions of western hemisphere and Polynesia. Etymology: (Aramaic, Hebrew; from the verb K-S-Y (Kaph, Shin, Yodh), to cover, from habit) Note: By persistent, withered corolla, fruit may be "capped" (corolla on top of fruit), "surrounded" (fruit at least in part visible, corolla +- loosely around fruit), or "enclosed" (fruit not visible, corolla +- tightly around fruit). Cuscuta pentagona Engelm. excluded.
eFlora Treatment Author: Mihai Costea & Saša Stefanović
Reference: Costea & Stefanovic 2009 Syst Bot 34:570--579
Unabridged Reference: Costea et al. 2005 Brittonia 57:264--272; Costea et al. 2006 Sida 22:151--175, 177--195, 197--207, 209--225; Costea & Stefanovic 2009. Cuscuta jepsonii (Convolvulaceae), an invasive weed or an extinct endemic? Amer J Bot 96:1744--1750; Costea et al. 2009. Untangling the systematics of salt marsh dodders: Cuscuta pacifica a new segregate species from Cuscuta salina (Convolvulaceae). Syst Bot 34:787--795; Costea & Stefanovic. 2009. Molecular phylogeny of Cuscuta californica complex (Convolvulaceae) and a new species from New Mexico and Trans-Pecos. Syst Bot 34:570--579; Costea & Tardif 2006 Canad J Pl Sci 86:293--316
Cuscuta salina Engelm.
NATIVE
Inflorescence: umbel-like, flowers 2--16; pedicels (0.5)1--5 mm. Flower: 2.5--4.5 mm, membranous, papillate or not, parts in 5s; calyx generally = corolla tube, +- cylindric, generally divided 1/2, not veined, +- shiny, lobes lance-ovate to lanceolate, bases not overlapped, margins entire, tip acute to acuminate; corolla tube 1.2--2 mm, +- cylindric, scales 4/5--9/10 corolla tube, oblong to +- obovate, rounded, uniformly densely fringed, lobes reflexed to spreading, generally = tube, ovate- to lance-oblong, margins entire, tip acute to acuminate, straight; filaments 0.3--0.7 mm, anthers exserted, 0.3--0.7 mm, elliptic; styles 0.4--0.9 mm, generally < ovary. Fruit: 1.6--2.5 mm, 1.7--2.2 mm wide, elliptic-ovoid, +- thickened, +- raised around opening between styles, not translucent, surrounded or capped by corolla. Seed: 1, 1.35--1.6 mm, 1.25--1.43 mm wide, widely elliptic to +- spheric. Chromosomes: 2n=30.
Ecology: Generally on herbs on inland salt flats; Elevation: 50--100 m. Bioregional Distribution: KR, GV, SnFrB, W&I; Distribution Outside California: to Washington, Utah, New Mexico, Baja California. Flowering Time: May--Nov
Jepson eFlora Author: Mihai Costea & Saša Stefanović
Reference: Costea & Stefanovic 2009 Syst Bot 34:570--579
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Botanical illustration including Cuscuta salina

botanical illustration including Cuscuta salina

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Citation for this treatment: Mihai Costea & Saša Stefanović 2012, Cuscuta salina, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=21469, accessed on November 21, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on November 21, 2019.

Cuscuta salina
click for enlargement
© 2013 California Academy of Sciences
Cuscuta salina
click for enlargement
© 2003 George W. Hartwell
Cuscuta salina
click for enlargement
© 2013 California Academy of Sciences
Cuscuta salina
click for enlargement
© 2013 California Academy of Sciences
Cuscuta salina
click for enlargement
© 2003 George W. Hartwell
Cuscuta salina
click for enlargement
© 2013 California Academy of Sciences

More photos of Cuscuta salina in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Cuscuta salina:
KR, GV, SnFrB, W&I
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

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Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.