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Cuscuta californica
CHAPARRAL DODDER

Higher Taxonomy
Family: ConvolvulaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: MORNING-GLORY FAMILY
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, subshrub, generally twining or trailing. Leaf: 0 or alternate. Inflorescence: cyme or flowers 1 in axils; bracts subtending flowers 0 or 2. Flower: bisexual, radial; sepals (4)5, +- free, overlapping, persistent, often unequal; corolla generally showy, generally bell-shaped, +- shallowly 5-lobed, generally pleated and twisted in bud; stamens 5, epipetalous; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, each generally 2-ovuled, styles 1--2. Fruit: generally capsule. Seed: 1--4(6).
Genera In Family: 55--60 genera, 1600--1700 species: warm temperate to tropics; some cultivated for food or as ornamental (Ipomoea). Note: Monophyletic only if Cuscutaceae included, as treated here. Ipomoea cairica (L.) Sweet, Ipomoea hederacea Jacq. [Ipomoea nil L., misappl.], Ipomoea indica (Burm.) Merr. (including Ipomoea mutabilis Ker Gawl.), Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth, Ipomoea triloba L., all included in TJM (1993), not naturalized.
eFlora Treatment Author: Robert E. Preston, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: CuscutaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: DODDER
Habit: Vine, annual (perennial herb if on perennial host), not in contact with ground, attached to, holoparasitic on host by many small, specialized roots (haustoria) along stem, generally glabrous. Stem: thread-like, +- green, yellow, orange, or +- red. Leaf: 0 or scale-like, alternate, +- 2 mm. Inflorescence: generally cyme, head- to panicle-like (flowers 1), subtended by 0--3 bracts. Flower: bisexual, radial, parts generally in 4s or 5s; calyx generally divided 2/5--3/5, persistent generally +- cream-white; corolla generally +- white, persistent (withered in fruit) or not, tube cup-shaped to cylindric, bulged or horizontally ridged below lobes or generally not, generally with scales subtending stamens, lobes alternate stamens, erect to reflexed; ovary superior, chambers 2, each 2-ovuled, styles 2, generally free, persistent, stigmas 2, generally spheric, persistent. Fruit: capsule, generally indehiscent to irregularly dehiscent (or circumscissile near base), spheric to ovoid, depressed or not, thickened and/or raised around generally inconspicuous opening between styles or not. Seed: 1--4; coat papillate when hydrated, honeycombed when dry, (rarely neither, with cells +- rectangular, in +- jigsaw-puzzle-like arrangement); embryo generally slender, 1--3-coiled.
Species In Genus: +- 180 species: cosmopolitan, especially warmer regions of western hemisphere and Polynesia. Etymology: (Aramaic, Hebrew; from the verb K-S-Y (Kaph, Shin, Yodh), to cover, from habit) Note: By persistent, withered corolla, fruit may be "capped" (corolla on top of fruit), "surrounded" (fruit at least in part visible, corolla +- loosely around fruit), or "enclosed" (fruit not visible, corolla +- tightly around fruit). Cuscuta pentagona Engelm. excluded.
eFlora Treatment Author: Mihai Costea & Saša Stefanović

Cuscuta californica Hook. & Arn.
NATIVE
Inflorescence: head- to panicle-like, flowers 3--20; pedicels (0.5)1--2.5(3) mm. Flower: 3--5(5.5) mm, papillate or not, parts in 5s; calyx 3/4 to = corolla tube, bell-shaped, generally divided 1/2--2/3, not veined, shiny when membranous, not shiny when fleshy, lobes triangular to lanceolate, bases overlapped, margins entire, tip acute to acuminate; corolla tube 1.6--2.4 mm, bell-shaped, bulged below lobes or not, scales 0, lobes erect, reflexed in age, >= tube, narrowly lanceolate, margins entire, tips acute to acuminate, straight; anthers exserted, 0.6--1 mm, oblong to linear; styles 1.2--2.2 mm, >= ovary. Fruit: 1.5--2.2 mm, 1.2--2.5 mm wide, spheric or ovoid-conic, tip pointed or not, not thickened or raised around opening between styles, not translucent, +- enclosed by corolla (top barely visible). Seed: 1--4, 0.9--1.3 mm, 0.8--1.1 mm wide, widely elliptic to obovate.

eFlora Treatment Author: Mihai Costea & Saša Stefanović
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Citation for this treatment: Mihai Costea & Saša Stefanović 2016. Cuscuta californica, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=21422, accessed on May 27, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on May 27, 2016.


Cuscuta californica var. californica
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© 2010 Neal Kramer
Cuscuta californica var. papillosa
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© 2008 Keir Morse
Cuscuta californica var. californica
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© 2003 Steve Matson
Cuscuta californica var. papillosa
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© 2003 Keir Morse
Cuscuta californica var. californica
click for enlargement
© 2003 Steve Matson
Cuscuta californica var. californica
click for enlargement
© 2003 Steve Matson

More photos of Cuscuta californica in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Cuscuta californica:
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.