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Cryptantha dumetorum
SCRAMBLING CRYPTANTHA

Higher Taxonomy
Family: BoraginaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: BORAGE or WATERLEAF FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub or small tree, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1--2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, generally without scales at tube base, with 0 or 5 appendages at tube top, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary generally superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1--4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
Genera In Family: +- 120 genera, +- 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum, Wigandia). Toxicity: Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. Note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. Wigandia urens added, as naturalized.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.
Genus: CryptanthaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual to perennial herb, generally erect. Stem: branches 0 or generally ascending to erect, hairy. Leaf: generally sessile; basal whorled, cauline generally alternate, reduced above (opposite below); generally strigose, rough-hairy, or bristly, largest bristles generally bulbous-based. Inflorescence: generally terminal, raceme- or generally spike-like cymes, in groups of 1--5 (> 5), generally coiled in bud, generally elongated in fruit; bracts generally 0. Flower: generally unscented, persistent or not; sepals fused at base; corolla tube generally 1--13 mm, limb 0.5--12 mm diam, generally white, appendages generally 5; anthers included; ovary generally 4-lobed. Fruit: pedicel 0 or < 12 mm in fruit; nutlets 1--4, generally gray to brown, smooth to granular, tubercled, or papillate, with abaxial, longitudinal ridge to not; margin rounded, sharp-edged, or a +- flat rim or wing; adaxially grooved above attachment scar, scar generally lateral, narrow, open to closed, raised or generally not, edges inrolled to sharp-angled, generally forked or flared open at base; central fruit axis ("axis") not reaching to extending beyond fruit.
Species In Genus: +- 200 species: western North America, western South America, northeastern Asia (1 sp.). Etymology: (Greek: hidden flowers, from cleistogamous flowers of some South American species) Note: Generally homostylous. The tissue between ovary lobes, interpreted as a receptacle and/or style (style sometimes 0, then stigma attached to top of receptacle), extends to various degrees in fruit, forming what is often called the gynobase (here "fruit axis"), to which the nutlets are laterally attached at maturity, leaving an attachment scar. Annual species without yellow corolla appendages generally self-pollinating; perennial herb species generally homostylous in California. Some species, e.g., Cryptantha angustifolia, Cryptantha ambigua, Cryptantha barbigera, Cryptantha mariposae, hybridize with co-occurring species. Observation of nutlets, hairs best at 10+× generally critical for identification. Corolla limb diam generally < at end of flower period, especially for annual species Cryptantha sobolifera Payson does not occur in California.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley, Michael G. Simpson & Kristen E. Hasenstab-Lehman

Cryptantha dumetorum (Greene ex A. Gray) Greene.
NATIVE
Habit: Annual 10--60 cm, prostrate to ascending, sprawling. Stem: branches throughout, prostrate to ascending, +- brittle; strigose to appressed-stiff-hairy. Leaf: 0.5--3(4) cm, linear to lanceolate, +- succulent; sparse-strigose and rough-hairy, hairs ascending to +- appressed, bulbous-based. Inflorescence: in 1s or 2s, +- sparse, flowers not 2-rowed, axis +- flat; bracts generally 0 or occasionally 1--2 near base; pedicels +- 0. Flower: calyx 1--1.5 mm, 2--3 mm in fruit, persistent; lobes dissimilar, 2 +- partly fused, strigose, 3 free, lanceolate with thickened midvein, sparse-strigose and long-spreading-bristly; corolla deciduous, limb 0.5--1 mm diam, appendages 0. Fruit: nutlets 4, 1.5--2.5 mm (1 > others), larger 1 wide-lanceolate, +- rough, persistent, smaller 3 +- lanceolate, deciduous, generally white-sharp-grainy, dull; abaxially rounded, ridge 0, adaxially +- rounded, attachment scar edges not raised, +- wide-gapped entire length, not flared or forked at base; axis generally to nutlet tips.
Ecology: Sandy soils, dunes, slopes, or occasionally gravelly washes, generally under/on other plants; Elevation: 250--1400 m. Bioregional Distribution: SNH (e slope), e Teh, TR (n slope), s SNE, DMoj, n DSon; Distribution Outside California: southern Nevada, southwestern Utah. Flowering Time: Mar--May Note: Generally present in wet years.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley, Michael G. Simpson & Kristen E. Hasenstab-Lehman
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Citation for this treatment: Ronald B. Kelley, Michael G. Simpson & Kristen E. Hasenstab-Lehman 2016. Cryptantha dumetorum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=21222, accessed on May 30, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on May 30, 2016.


Cryptantha dumetorum
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© 2005 Steve Matson
Cryptantha dumetorum
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© 2011 Michael G. Simpson
Cryptantha dumetorum
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© 2005 James M. Andre
Cryptantha dumetorum
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© 2011 Michael G. Simpson
Cryptantha dumetorum
click for enlargement
© 2005 James M. Andre
Cryptantha dumetorum
click for enlargement
© 2010 Steve Matson

More photos of Cryptantha dumetorum in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Cryptantha dumetorum:
SNH (e slope), e Teh, TR (n slope), s SNE, DMoj, n DSon;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.