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Crypsis alopecuroides
FOXTAIL PRICKLE GRASS

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Poaceae (Gramineae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: GRASS FAMILY
Habit: Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1--many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally +- transparent, +- enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
Genera In Family: 650--900 genera; +- 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). Note: Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761--770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr., except as noted
Scientific Editor: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Genus: CrypsisView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: PRICKLE GRASS
Habit: Annual. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: ligule hairy; blade generally short, linear to narrowly lanceolate. Inflorescence: panicle-like, dense, cylindric and exserted or head-like and enclosed by enlarged sheaths. Spikelet: bisexual, strongly compressed, falling as 1 unit; glumes, lemma acute or short-pointed; glumes <= floret, generally lanceolate, keeled, strongly 1-veined; floret 1; lemma membranous, 1-veined; palea generally 2-veined, generally splitting with age; stamens generally 3. Fruit: utricle-like, when wet gelatinous with seed emergent from split ovary wall.
Species In Genus: 8 species: Mediterranean Europe, Asia, central Africa. Etymology: (Greek: concealment, from partly hidden inflorescence)

Crypsis alopecuroides (Piller & Mitterp.) Schrad.
NATURALIZED
Habit: Plant generally purple to black. Stem: ascending, 5--75 cm; branches few. Leaf: sheath margin glabrous; blade 5--12 cm, green or +- glaucous. Inflorescence: 15--65 mm, 4--6 mm wide, cylindric, exserted from subtending sheath. Spikelet: 2--3 mm; glume keel hairy, lower glume < upper; lemma generally > glumes; palea 2-veined. Chromosomes: 2n=16.
Ecology: Bottomland, reservoir and river margins; Elevation: < 1700 m. Bioregional Distribution: KR, NCoRI, CaRH, n SN, ScV, CCo (Marin Co.), SNE; Distribution Outside California: western United States, Pennsylvania; native to Europe. Flowering Time: Jun--Sep
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr.
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Citation for this treatment: James P. Smith, Jr. 2016. Crypsis alopecuroides, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=21181, accessed on May 27, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on May 27, 2016.


Crypsis alopecuroides
click for enlargement
© 2005 Steve Matson
Crypsis alopecuroides
click for enlargement
© 2005 Steve Matson
Crypsis alopecuroides
click for enlargement
© 2005 Steve Matson
Crypsis alopecuroides
click for enlargement
© 2005 Steve Matson
Crypsis alopecuroides
click for enlargement
© 2005 Steve Matson
Crypsis alopecuroides
click for enlargement
© 2005 Steve Matson

More photos of Crypsis alopecuroides in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Crypsis alopecuroides:
KR, NCoRI, CaRH, n SN, ScV, CCo (Marin Co.), SNE;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.