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    Vascular Plants of California
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Crucianella angustifolia

Higher Taxonomy
Family: RubiaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual to tree, vine. Leaf: generally opposite (whorled), entire; stipules generally fused to stem, adjacent pairs occasionally fused, or occasionally leaf-like and appearing like whorled leaves. Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, spike, cluster, or flower 1, generally terminal and +- axillary. Flower: generally bisexual; calyx +- 4(5)-lobed, occasionally 0 (Galium, Crucianella) or 6 (Sherardia); corolla generally radial, 4(5)-lobed; stamens epipetalous, alternate corolla lobes, generally included; ovary generally inferior, chambers generally 2 or 4, style 1(2). Fruit: drupe, berry, or 2 or 4 nutlets [capsule].
Genera In Family: +- 500 genera, 6000 species: worldwide, especially tropics; many cultivated, including Coffea, coffee; Cinchona, quinine; many ornamental. Note: Diodia teres Walter doubtfully in California.
eFlora Treatment Author: Robert E. Preston & Lauramay T. Dempster, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: CrucianellaView Description 

Common Name: CROSS-WORT
Habit: Annual. Leaf: whorled, opposite in inflorescence. Inflorescence: spike; bracts overlapping, 3 per flower. Flower: calyx 0; corolla tubular, lobes 4--5, erect; style divided distally, stigmas spheric. Fruit: nutlets 2, wider distally.
Species In Genus: 35--40 species: Mediterranean to central Asia. Etymology: (Latin: little cross, presumably from corolla lobes)

Crucianella angustifolia L.
Habit: Plant erect or +- decumbent. Stem: 12--30 cm, 4-angled. Leaf: in whorls of 4, 8--25 mm, linear. Inflorescence: 2.5--7.5 cm, dense, narrow, 4-angled, +- grass-like; bracts scarious, rib green, tip sharp. Flower: corolla white or yellow. Fruit: glabrous. Chromosomes: 2n=22.
Ecology: Disturbed areas in grassland, foothill woodland, yellow-pine forest; Elevation: 30--1100 m. Bioregional Distribution: s KR, NCoRI, s CaR, n SN, e ScV; Distribution Outside California: Idaho; native to Europe. Flowering Time: Apr--Jun
eFlora Treatment Author: Robert E. Preston & Lauramay T. Dempster
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botanical illustration including Crucianella angustifolia


Citation for this treatment: Robert E. Preston & Lauramay T. Dempster 2012, Crucianella angustifolia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on September 25, 2018.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2018, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on September 25, 2018.

Crucianella angustifolia
click for enlargement
© 2010 Julie Kierstead Nelson
Crucianella angustifolia
click for enlargement
© 2010 Julie Kierstead Nelson

More photos of Crucianella angustifolia in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Crucianella angustifolia:
s KR, NCoRI, s CaR, n SN, e ScV;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.