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Corallorhiza trifida
NORTHERN CORALROOT

Higher Taxonomy
Family: OrchidaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: ORCHID FAMILY
Habit: Perennial herb, terrestrial [growing on other pls], non-green (nutrition from association of roots with fungi) or green, generally from rhizomes or tubers with few to many fleshy to slender roots; cauline leaves +- reduced to sheathing stem bracts or not. Leaf: 1--many, basal to cauline, linear to +- round, alternate to opposite (if only 1 pair), generally sessile. Inflorescence: flowers 1--many, spike or raceme, bracted. Flower: bisexual, bilateral, in bud generally rotating 180° by twisting ovary (position of parts indicated after twisting); sepals generally 3, generally free, generally petal-like, uppermost generally erect, lateral with chin- or spur-like projection (mentum) or not; petals 3, 1 (lip) different, spurred or not; stamens generally 1 (3 in Cypripedium, 2 functional, 1 a staminode), fused with style, stigma into column, pollen generally lumped, generally removed as unit by insect; ovary inferior, 1-chambered, placentas 3, parietal, stigma 3 lobed, generally under column tip. Fruit: capsule. Seed: many, minute.
Genera In Family: +- 800 genera, +- 25000 species: especially tropics (worldwide except Antarctica). Many cultivated for ornamental, especially Cattleya, Cymbidium, Epidendrum, Oncidium, Paphiopedilum; Vanilla planifolia Andrews fruits used to flavor food. Note: Platanthera may be paraphyletic without inclusion of Piperia (Bateman et al. 2009 Ann Bot 104:431--445); study needed.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald A. Coleman, Dieter H. Wilken & William F. Jennings, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Ronald A. Coleman, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: CorallorhizaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: CORALROOT
Habit: Plant +- scapose, brown, tan, +- pink, +- red, +- purple, (+- green); rhizome branches many, short, scaly, together coral-like. Leaf: at flower 0. Inflorescence: raceme; flower bract << flower, often scale-like. Flower: sepals +- alike, oblong to (ob)lanceolate, generally curved over column and lip, generally 3-veined, lower generally fused at base, mentum present or not; lateral petals spreading or curved toward lip, lip not spurred, entire to 3-lobed, spreading to reflexed; column generally convex adaxially, concave abaxially, curved over lip. Fruit: pendent.
Species In Genus: 11 species: North America, Central America, Eurasia. Etymology: (Greek: coral root)

Corallorhiza trifida Châtel.
NATIVE
Habit: Plant 8--30 cm. Stem: +- green. Flower: sepals 4.5--6 mm, 1-veined, white or +- yellow, lower curved forward, mentum minute; lateral petals +- sepal-like, lip 3--4.5 mm, with 2 lobes laterally, white, red-spotted or not, above middle crenate; column 2.5--6 mm, white or +- yellow. Fruit: 8--14 mm. Chromosomes: 2n=42.
Ecology: Wet, open to shaded, generally conifer forest; Elevation: 1400--1700 m. Bioregional Distribution: n SNH (Plumas Co.); Distribution Outside California: to Alaska, eastern United States, New Mexico; Eurasia. Flowering Time: Jul
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald A. Coleman, Dieter H. Wilken & William F. Jennings
Jepson Online Interchange
Listed on CNPS Rare Plant Inventory

Previous taxon: Corallorhiza striata
Next taxon: Cypripedium

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botanical illustration including Corallorhiza trifida

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Citation for this treatment: Ronald A. Coleman, Dieter H. Wilken & William F. Jennings 2016. Corallorhiza trifida, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=20267, accessed on August 26, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on August 26, 2016.


Corallorhiza trifida
click for enlargement
© 2014 Barry Rice
Corallorhiza trifida
click for enlargement
© 2012 Barry Rice
Corallorhiza trifida
click for enlargement
© 2014 Barry Rice
Corallorhiza trifida
click for enlargement
© 2012 Barry Rice
Corallorhiza trifida
click for enlargement
© 2012 Barry Rice
Corallorhiza trifida
click for enlargement
© 2012 Barry Rice

More photos of Corallorhiza trifida in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Corallorhiza trifida:
n SNH (Plumas Co.);
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.