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Vascular Plants of California
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Corallorhiza trifida
NORTHERN CORALROOT


Higher Taxonomy
Family: OrchidaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: ORCHID FAMILY
Habit: Perennial herb, terrestrial [growing on other pls], non-green (nutrition from association of roots with fungi) or green, generally from rhizomes or tubers with few to many fleshy to slender roots; cauline leaves +- reduced to sheathing stem bracts or not. Leaf: 1--many, basal to cauline, linear to +- round, alternate to opposite (if only 1 pair), generally sessile. Inflorescence: flowers 1--many, spike or raceme, bracted. Flower: bisexual, bilateral, in bud generally rotating 180° by twisting ovary (position of parts indicated after twisting); sepals generally 3, generally free, generally petal-like, uppermost generally erect, lateral with chin- or spur-like projection (mentum) or not; petals 3, 1 (lip) different, spurred or not; stamens generally 1 (3 in Cypripedium, 2 functional, 1 a staminode), fused with style, stigma into column, pollen generally lumped, generally removed as unit by insect; ovary inferior, 1-chambered, placentas 3, parietal, stigma 3 lobed, generally under column tip. Fruit: capsule. Seed: many, minute.
Genera In Family: +- 800 genera, +- 25000 species: especially tropics (worldwide except Antarctica). Many cultivated for ornamental, especially Cattleya, Cymbidium, Epidendrum, Oncidium, Paphiopedilum; Vanilla planifolia Andrews fruits used to flavor food. Note: Platanthera may be paraphyletic without inclusion of Piperia (Bateman et al. 2009 Ann Bot 104:431--445); study needed.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald A. Coleman, Dieter H. Wilken & William F. Jennings, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Ronald A. Coleman, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: CorallorhizaView DescriptionDichotomous Key


Common Name: CORALROOT
Habit: Plant +- scapose, brown, tan, +- pink, +- red, +- purple, (+- green); rhizome branches many, short, scaly, together coral-like. Leaf: at flower 0. Inflorescence: raceme; flower bract << flower, often scale-like. Flower: sepals +- alike, oblong to (ob)lanceolate, generally curved over column and lip, generally 3-veined, lower generally fused at base, mentum present or not; lateral petals spreading or curved toward lip, lip not spurred, entire to 3-lobed, spreading to reflexed; column generally convex adaxially, concave abaxially, curved over lip. Fruit: pendent.
Species In Genus: 11 species: North America, Central America, Eurasia. Etymology: (Greek: coral root)
Corallorhiza trifida Châtel.
NATIVE
Habit: Plant 8--30 cm. Stem: +- green. Flower: sepals 4.5--6 mm, 1-veined, white or +- yellow, lower curved forward, mentum minute; lateral petals +- sepal-like, lip 3--4.5 mm, with 2 lobes laterally, white, red-spotted or not, above middle crenate; column 2.5--6 mm, white or +- yellow. Fruit: 8--14 mm. Chromosomes: 2n=42.
Ecology: Wet, open to shaded, generally conifer forest; Elevation: 1400--1700 m. Bioregional Distribution: n SNH (Plumas Co.); Distribution Outside California: to Alaska, eastern United States, New Mexico; Eurasia. Flowering Time: Jul
Jepson eFlora Author: Ronald A. Coleman, Dieter H. Wilken & William F. Jennings
Jepson Online Interchange
Listed on CNPS Rare Plant Inventory

Previous taxon: Corallorhiza striata
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Botanical illustration including Corallorhiza trifida

botanical illustration including Corallorhiza trifida

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Citation for this treatment: Ronald A. Coleman, Dieter H. Wilken & William F. Jennings 2012, Corallorhiza trifida, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=20267, accessed on December 08, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on December 08, 2019.

Corallorhiza trifida
click for enlargement
© 2012 Barry Rice
Corallorhiza trifida
click for enlargement
© 2012 Barry Rice
Corallorhiza trifida
click for enlargement
© 2012 Barry Rice
Corallorhiza trifida
click for enlargement
© 2014 Barry Rice
Corallorhiza trifida
click for enlargement
© 2012 Barry Rice
Corallorhiza trifida
click for enlargement
© 2014 Barry Rice

More photos of Corallorhiza trifida in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Corallorhiza trifida:
n SNH (Plumas Co.)
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

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Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
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All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.