Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
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Corallorhiza trifida
NORTHERN CORALROOT

Higher Taxonomy
Family: OrchidaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: ORCHID FAMILY
Habit: Perennial herb, terrestrial [growing on other pls], non-green (nutrition from association of roots with fungi) or green, generally from rhizomes or tubers with few to many fleshy to slender roots; cauline leaves +- reduced to sheathing stem bracts or not. Leaf: 1--many, basal to cauline, linear to +- round, alternate to opposite (if only 1 pair), generally sessile. Inflorescence: flowers 1--many, spike or raceme, bracted. Flower: bisexual, bilateral, in bud generally rotating 180° by twisting ovary (position of parts indicated after twisting); sepals generally 3, generally free, generally petal-like, uppermost generally erect, lateral with chin- or spur-like projection (mentum) or not; petals 3, 1 (lip) different, spurred or not; stamens generally 1 (3 in Cypripedium, 2 functional, 1 a staminode), fused with style, stigma into column, pollen generally lumped, generally removed as unit by insect; ovary inferior, 1-chambered, placentas 3, parietal, stigma 3 lobed, generally under column tip. Fruit: capsule. Seed: many, minute.
Genera In Family: +- 800 genera, +- 25000 species: especially tropics (worldwide except Antarctica). Many cultivated for ornamental, especially Cattleya, Cymbidium, Epidendrum, Oncidium, Paphiopedilum; Vanilla planifolia Andrews fruits used to flavor food. Note: Platanthera may be paraphyletic without inclusion of Piperia (Bateman et al. 2009 Ann Bot 104:431--445); study needed.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald A. Coleman, Dieter H. Wilken & William F. Jennings, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Ronald A. Coleman, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: CorallorhizaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: CORALROOT
Habit: Plant +- scapose, brown, tan, +- pink, +- red, +- purple, (+- green); rhizome branches many, short, scaly, together coral-like. Leaf: at flower 0. Inflorescence: raceme; flower bract << flower, often scale-like. Flower: sepals +- alike, oblong to (ob)lanceolate, generally curved over column and lip, generally 3-veined, lower generally fused at base, mentum present or not; lateral petals spreading or curved toward lip, lip not spurred, entire to 3-lobed, spreading to reflexed; column generally convex adaxially, concave abaxially, curved over lip. Fruit: pendent.
Species In Genus: 11 species: North America, Central America, Eurasia. Etymology: (Greek: coral root)

Corallorhiza trifida Châtel.
NATIVE
Habit: Plant 8--30 cm. Stem: +- green. Flower: sepals 4.5--6 mm, 1-veined, white or +- yellow, lower curved forward, mentum minute; lateral petals +- sepal-like, lip 3--4.5 mm, with 2 lobes laterally, white, red-spotted or not, above middle crenate; column 2.5--6 mm, white or +- yellow. Fruit: 8--14 mm. Chromosomes: 2n=42.
Ecology: Wet, open to shaded, generally conifer forest; Elevation: 1400--1700 m. Bioregional Distribution: n SNH (Plumas Co.); Distribution Outside California: to Alaska, eastern United States, New Mexico; Eurasia. Flowering Time: Jul
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald A. Coleman, Dieter H. Wilken & William F. Jennings
Jepson Online Interchange
Listed on CNPS Rare Plant Inventory

Previous taxon: Corallorhiza striata
Next taxon: Cypripedium

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botanical illustration including Corallorhiza trifida

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Citation for this treatment: Ronald A. Coleman, Dieter H. Wilken & William F. Jennings 2016. Corallorhiza trifida, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=20267, accessed on May 04, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on May 04, 2016.


Corallorhiza trifida
click for enlargement
© 2014 Barry Rice
Corallorhiza trifida
click for enlargement
© 2012 Barry Rice
Corallorhiza trifida
click for enlargement
© 2012 Barry Rice
Corallorhiza trifida
click for enlargement
© 2012 Barry Rice
Corallorhiza trifida
click for enlargement
© 2014 Barry Rice
Corallorhiza trifida
click for enlargement
© 2014 Barry Rice

More photos of Corallorhiza trifida in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Corallorhiza trifida:
n SNH (Plumas Co.);
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.