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Conicosia pugioniformis

Higher Taxonomy
Family: AizoaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual, perennial herb, shrub, generally fleshy. Stem: underground to erect; root fibrous or tuberous. Leaf: generally simple, entire, flat, cylindric, 3-angled, or scale-like, generally cauline, generally opposite; stipules generally 0; blade papillate, pubescent, or generally glabrous, often glaucous. Inflorescence: cyme or 1-flowered, generally terminal. Flower: generally bisexual, radial; hypanthium present; sepals (3)5(8), often unequal; petals 0 or many in several whorls, free or fused at base, linear; stamens 1--many, free or fused in groups, outer often petal-like; nectary a ring or separate glands; pistil 1, ovary superior to inferior, chambers 1--20, placentas generally parietal, styles 0--20. Fruit: berry, nut, or generally capsule, opening by flaps or circumscissile. Seed: 1--many per chamber, generally ovoid, arilled or not.
Genera In Family: 130 genera, 2500 species: generally subtropics, especially southern Africa; many cultivated. Note: Galenia pubescens (Eckl. & Zeyh.) Druce, a waif, may be naturalizing in southern California.
Unabridged Note: Disphyma crassifolium (L.) L. Bolus (ovary glands convex, minute-crenate; stigmas dense-plumose; fruit chambers 5; seeds ovate, +- smooth), of tribe Ruschieae, an historical waif in California; Lampranthus coccineus (Haw.) N.E. Br.: (ovary glands fused; fruit chambers 5; seeds pear-shaped, +- black, rough), of Ruschieae, an historical waif or urban weed in California.
eFlora Treatment Author: Nancy J. Vivrette, John Bleck & Wayne R. Ferren, Jr., family description, key to genera
Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: ConicosiaView Description 

Habit: Perennial herb, generally short-lived; roots diffuse or tuberous. Stem: caudex underground; annual shoots prostrate to ascending. Leaf: basal rosetted; cauline generally alternate, linear, +- triangular in ×-section. Inflorescence: 1-flowered, axillary; bracts 0. Flower: 5--13 cm diam; sepals 5, +- unequal, wider at base, tip cylindric, basal margins of inner 3 papery; petals free, linear, yellow, ciliate in basal 1/2; stamens many, base hairy; ovary +- inferior, chambers [8]10--20[22], thread-like, sessile. Fruit: capsule, opening by 10--20 flaps at conic top that do not spread when moistened, valves 10--20, separating, dehiscing tardily. Seed: spheric, smooth.
Species In Genus: 2 species: southern Africa. Etymology: (Greek: cone-shaped)
eFlora Treatment Author: John Bleck

Conicosia pugioniformis (L.) N.E. Br.
Stem: caudex 1, < 30 cm, 1--2 cm diam. Leaf: cauline crowded toward stem tip, 15--20 cm, 10--12 mm wide, gray-green, glabrous, adaxially grooved or flat. Inflorescence: pedicel < 12 cm. Flower: 5--8 cm diam, shiny yellow, lasting several days; odor unpleasant. Seed: 1.5--1.8 mm. Chromosomes: 2n=18.
Ecology: Uncommon. Sandy places, especially coastal dunes; Elevation: < 100 m. Bioregional Distribution: CCo; Distribution Outside California: native to southern Africa. Flowering Time: May--Oct
Synonyms: Mesembryanthemum pugioniforme L.
eFlora Treatment Author: John Bleck
Jepson Online Interchange
Weed listed by Cal-IPC

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botanical illustration including Conicosia pugioniformis


Citation for this treatment: John Bleck 2016. Conicosia pugioniformis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on February 07, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on February 07, 2016.

Conicosia pugioniformis
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© 2012 Gary A. Monroe
Conicosia pugioniformis
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© 2014 Neal Kramer
Conicosia pugioniformis
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© 2011 Neal Kramer
Conicosia pugioniformis
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© 1997 Christopher L. Christie
Conicosia pugioniformis
click for enlargement
© 2014 Neal Kramer
Conicosia pugioniformis
click for enlargement
© 2011 Neal Kramer

More photos of Conicosia pugioniformis in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Conicosia pugioniformis:
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.