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Cicuta maculata

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Apiaceae (Umbelliferae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: CARROT FAMILY
Habit: Annual to perennial herb [shrub, tree], generally from taproot. Stem: generally +- scapose, generally ribbed, hollow. Leaf: basal and generally cauline, generally alternate; stipules generally 0; petiole base generally sheathing stem; blade generally much dissected, occasionally compound. Inflorescence: umbel or head, simple or compound, generally peduncled; bracts present in involucres or 0; bractlets generally present in "involucels". Flower: many, small, generally bisexual (or some staminate), generally radial (or outer bilateral); calyx 0 or lobes 5, small; petals 5, free, generally ovate or spoon-shaped, generally incurved at tips, generally +- ephemeral; stamens 5; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 2-chambered, generally with a +- conic, persistent projection or platform at tip subtending 2 free styles. Fruit: 2 dry, 1-seeded halves (= mericarps), separating from each other but generally +- persistent to central axis; ribs on halves 5, 2 marginal, 3 to back; oil tubes 1--several per interval between ribs.
Genera In Family: 300 genera, 3000 species: +- worldwide, especially temperate; many cultivated for food or spice (e.g., Carum, caraway; Daucus; Petroselinum); Bupleurum lancifolium Hornem. is historical garden weed; some toxic (e.g., Conium). Note: Mature fruit generally critical in identification, shape given in outline. Hydrocotyle moved to Araliaceae. Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) A.W. Hill is a waif.
eFlora Treatment Author: Lincoln Constance & Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: CicutaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: WATER-HEMLOCK
Habit: Perennial herb, glabrous; rhizome internally chambered, sap becoming +- red-brown in air, fibrous- or tuberous-rooted. Stem: erect, hollow. Leaf: blade oblong to triangular-ovate, 1--3-pinnate or ternate-pinnate, leaflets linear to lance-ovate, serrate or irregularly cut. Inflorescence: umbels compound; bracts generally 0; bractlets generally inconspicuous; rays, pedicels many, spreading. Flower: calyx lobes minute; petals wide, white, tips narrowed. Fruit: ovoid to spheric, +- compressed side-to-side; ribs low, corky, occasionally unequally spaced; oil tube 1 per rib-interval; fruit axis divided to base. Seed: face flat or concave.
Species In Genus: +- 4 species: Eurasia, North America. Etymology: (Ancient Latin name) Toxicity: TOXIC: the most lethally toxic native plant species.
Unabridged Note: Both species below contain cicutoxin, a strong poison; many livestock and human deaths recorded.

Cicuta maculata L.
NATIVE
Habit: Plant 10--15 dm. Leaf: 1--4 dm, ovate to triangular-ovate, 1--2-pinnate; leaflets 2--10 cm, lanceolate, acute or acuminate, coarsely to sparsely serrate, areas defined by major veinlets on abaxial surface small, generally +- circular or +- square, less often +- elongate. Inflorescence: umbels compound, terminal and lateral; peduncles 2.5--12 cm; rays 15--30, 2--4.5 cm; pedicels 15--30, 2--10 mm. Fruit: 3--4 mm, generally ovate; rib width generally <= intervals between. Chromosomes: 2n=22.
Note: Varieties best distinguishable in California by habitat, geography. Other varieties in eastern North America.
eFlora Treatment Author: Lincoln Constance & Margriet Wetherwax
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Next taxon: Cicuta maculata var. angustifolia

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Citation for this treatment: Lincoln Constance & Margriet Wetherwax 2016. Cicuta maculata, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=19448, accessed on December 08, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on December 08, 2016.


Cicuta maculata var. angustifolia
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© 2013 Steve Matson
Cicuta maculata
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© 2016 Keir Morse
Cicuta maculata var. bolanderi
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© 2013 Steve Matson
Cicuta maculata
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© 2016 Keir Morse
Cicuta maculata var. angustifolia
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© 2013 Steve Matson
Cicuta maculata var. angustifolia
click for enlargement
© 2013 Steve Matson

More photos of Cicuta maculata in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Cicuta maculata:
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
READ ABOUT YELLOW FLAGS
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.