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Vascular Plants of California
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Cicendia quadrangularis
TIMWORT


Higher Taxonomy
Family: GentianaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: GENTIAN FAMILY
Habit: Annual to perennial herb [to trees]. Stem: decumbent to erect, < 2 m, simple or branched. Leaf: simple, cauline, sometimes also basal, opposite or whorled, entire, sessile or basal +- petioled; stipules 0. Flower: bisexual, radial, parts in 4s or 5s except pistil 1; sepals fused, persistent; petals fused, +- persistent, sinus between lobes often unappendaged; stamens epipetalous, alternate corolla lobes; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas parietal, often intruding, stigmas 1--2. Fruit: capsule, 2-valved. Seed: many.
Genera In Family: +- 90 genera, 1800 species: worldwide; some cultivated (Eustoma, Exacum, Gentiana). Note: Gentianella tenella moved to Comastoma. Key to genera revised by Bruce G. Baldwin.
eFlora Treatment Author: James S. Pringle, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: CicendiaView Description 


Habit: Annual, glabrous. Stem: erect, 1. Leaf: basal, cauline, opposite. Inflorescence: cyme or flowers 1. Flower: parts in 4s; calyx not appressed to, much wider than corolla tube, sepal midveins narrow-keeled; corolla salverform, yellow, lobes < tube, nectary pits 0 (nectaries elsewhere 0); ovary sessile, style thread-like, cleft +- 0.1 mm, deciduous, stigmas 2.
Species In Genus: 2 species: western North America, western South America, Europe. Etymology: (According to Michael Charters and David Hollombe, http://www.calflora.net/botanicalnames/pageCI-CY.html, from Kikenda, an old Toscanan (Italian) name for a gentianaceous pl)
Cicendia quadrangularis (Lam.) Griseb.
NATIVE
Habit: Plant < 9 cm. Stem: simple or branched from near base. Leaf: 4--9 mm, ovate, lanceolate, elliptic, or oblanceolate; cauline < internodes. Inflorescence: pedicels < 5.5 cm. Flower: calyx < 7 mm, tube hemispheric, lobes << tube, minutely triangular, acute, sinus between lobes wide, truncate; corolla < 10 mm, lobes < 4 mm, ovate-elliptic, tip rounded. Chromosomes: 2n=26.
Ecology: Open places; Elevation: < 2700 m. Bioregional Distribution: NCo, NCoRO, CaRF, n&c SNF, GV, CCo; Distribution Outside California: to Oregon; South America. Flowering Time: Mar--May
Synonyms: Microcala quadrangularis (Lam.) Griseb.
Jepson eFlora Author: James S. Pringle
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Botanical illustration including Cicendia quadrangularis

botanical illustration including Cicendia quadrangularis

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Citation for this treatment: James S. Pringle 2012, Cicendia quadrangularis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=19440, accessed on July 22, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on July 22, 2019.

Cicendia quadrangularis
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© 2015 Vernon Smith
Cicendia quadrangularis
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© 2011 Barry Breckling
Cicendia quadrangularis
click for enlargement
© 2015 Vernon Smith
Cicendia quadrangularis
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© 2017 California Academy of Sciences
Cicendia quadrangularis
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© 2004 Carol W. Witham
Cicendia quadrangularis
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© 2016 Barry Rice

More photos of Cicendia quadrangularis in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Cicendia quadrangularis:
NCo, NCoRO, CaRF, n&c SNF, GV, CCo
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

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Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.