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Chloris truncata
BLACK WINDMILL GRASS

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Poaceae (Gramineae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: GRASS FAMILY
Habit: Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1--many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally +- transparent, +- enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
Genera In Family: 650--900 genera; +- 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). Note: Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761--770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr., except as noted
Scientific Editor: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Genus: ChlorisView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual, perennial herb, cespitose, rhizomatous or stoloniferous. Stem: decumbent to erect, 1--7 dm. Leaf: ligule membranous or hairy-tufted; blade generally 10--50 cm, 0.2--1.5 cm wide, flat. Inflorescence: generally digitate; branches 2--30, sometimes in distinct whorls, each raceme- or spike-like branch with 2 rows of overlapping spikelets on 1 side of axis. Spikelet: laterally compressed; glumes unequal, < florets, 1--3-veined; axis breaking above glumes; lower florets fertile, 1--2, upper florets sterile or staminate, 1--4, < 1/2 lower floret length; fertile floret lemma ovate to lanceolate, back glabrous, midvein hairy, 3-veined, awn 1; palea < lemma, translucent, obscure; anthers 3. Fruit: +- fusiform, 3-angled.
Species In Genus: +- 50 species: warm temperate, tropics worldwide, especially southern hemisphere. Etymology: (Greek: goddess of flowers)
eFlora Treatment Author: Rosa Cerros-Tlatilpa

Chloris truncata R. Br.
NATURALIZED
Habit: Perennial herb from stolons. Stem: 3--5 dm. Leaf: sheath glabrous; ligule membranous, short-ciliate; blade 5--20 cm, 2--3 mm wide, glabrous to occasionally scabrous. Inflorescence: digitate; branches 5--13, +- erect, 5--23 cm. Spikelet: 2--4.5 mm, dark brown to black; lower glume 1.4--2.3 mm, upper 2.8--4.2 mm; lower floret bisexual, 2--4 mm, upper florets 1(2), staminate, lemma awns 3--12+ mm, lower generally > upper. Fruit: dorsally compressed. Chromosomes: 2n=40.
Ecology: Disturbed areas; weed of cultivation fields; Elevation: < 500 m. Bioregional Distribution: GV, PR, DMoj; Distribution Outside California: South Carolina; native to Australia. Flowering Time: Apr--Nov Note: Plants may contain cyanogenic glycosides and be potentially TOXIC to livestock.
eFlora Treatment Author: Rosa Cerros-Tlatilpa
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Citation for this treatment: Rosa Cerros-Tlatilpa 2016. Chloris truncata, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=19271, accessed on July 26, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on July 26, 2016.


Geographic subdivisions for Chloris truncata:
GV, PR, DMoj;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.