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|Family: Ceratophyllaceae||View Description||Dichotomous Key|
|Genus: Ceratophyllum||View Description||Dichotomous Key|
|Species:||View Description||Dichotomous Key|
Ceratophyllum demersum L.
Stem: 1--3+ m, glabrous, limp, suspended by water, brittle, branches 0--3 per node. Leaf: 3--11 per node, 0.8--3 cm; segments 2--4, with 2 rows small teeth distally, 1 multicellular, glandular appendage at tip. Inflorescence: uncommon. Flower: staminate 2--5 mm, stamens pink to +- red; pistillate 1--2 mm, pistil generally +- yellow, margins red-tinged or not, style generally 1 mm. Fruit: 3.5--6 mm (except spines), dark green to red-brown, generally tubercled, base with 2 tubercles or 2 spines, margin spineless, wingless; spines 0.1--12 mm, stiff, bases generally webbed; style persistent on fruit, stiff, erect, 0.5--14 mm. Seed: cotyledons large, fleshy; terminal bud highly developed; first leaves simple, opposite, awl-like. Chromosomes: 2n=24,38,40,48.
Ecology: Common. Ditches, lakes, ponds, pools, slow watercourses; water 0.1--4 m deep, fresh to +- brackish, medium to high nutrient levels, acidic to alkaline (pH 5.9--9.4) but generally alkaline (pH > 7); Elevation: generally < 1700 m. Bioregional Distribution: CA (exc CaRF, Teh, ChI, W&I, DMtns); Distribution Outside California: common worldwide. Flowering Time: Jun--Aug Note: Plants self-fertile; populations generally > 50% staminate.
Synonyms: Ceratophyllum apiculatum Cham.
Unabridged Note: Plants with fruit having basal tubercles instead of spines were named Ceratophyllum apiculatum Cham., but such variants occur commonly and sporadically throughout sp. range and do not merit taxonomic recognition.
eFlora Treatment Author: Donald H. Les
Jepson Online Interchange
Previous taxon: Ceratophyllum
Next taxon: Acanthaceae
Citation for this treatment: Donald H. Les 2016. Ceratophyllum demersum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=18711, accessed on October 21, 2016.
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on October 21, 2016.