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Caulanthus major

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Brassicaceae (Cruciferae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: MUSTARD FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub; sap pungent, watery. Leaf: generally simple, alternate; generally both basal, cauline; stipules 0. Inflorescence: generally raceme, generally not bracted. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals 4, generally free; petals (0)4, forming a cross, generally white or yellow to purple; stamens generally 6 (2 or 4), 4 long, 2 short (3 pairs of unequal length); ovary 1, superior, generally 2-chambered with septum connecting 2 parietal placentas; style 1, stigma entire or 2-lobed. Fruit: capsule, generally 2-valved, "silique" (length >= 3 × width) or "silicle" (length < 3 × width), dehiscent by 2 valves or indehiscent, cylindric or flat parallel or perpendicular to septum, segmented or not. Seed: 1--many, in 1 or 2 rows per chamber, winged or wingless; embryo strongly curved.
Genera In Family: +- 330 genera, 3780 species: worldwide, especially temperate. Note: Highest diversity in Mediterranean area, mountains of southwestern Asia, adjacent central Asia, western North America; some Brassica species are oil or vegetable crops; Arabidopsis thaliana used in experimental molecular biology; many species are ornamentals, weeds. Aurinia saxatilis (L.) Desvaux in cultivation only. Aubrieta occasional waif in central NCoR, Carrichtera annua (L.) DC. in SCo, Iberis sempervirens L., Iberis umbellata L. in PR, Teesdalia coronopifolia (Bergeret) Thell., Teesdalia nudicaulis (L.) W.T. Aiton in southern NCoRO, CCo. Cardaria, Coronopus moved to Lepidium; Caulostramina to Hesperidanthus; Guillenia to Caulanthus; Heterodraba to Athysanus; California taxa of Lesquerella to Physaria; Malcolmia africana to Strigosella.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: CaulanthusView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: JEWELFLOWER
Habit: Annual to perennial herb, glabrous or hairs simple (forked). Leaf: basal rosetted or not, petioled, entire, dentate or pinnately lobed, generally deciduous; cauline petioled, or sessile with bases lobed or sagittate. Inflorescence: elongated. Flower: calyx urn-shaped or cylindric, sepals erect (spreading), base sac-like or not; petals yellow, purple, brown, or white, generally channeled, margin wavy or not; stamens in 3 pairs of equal length, or 4 long and 2 short, (all equal), free or filaments of longer pair(s) fused. Fruit: silique, linear, dehiscent, unsegmented, +- sessile, cylindric (flat perpendicular or parallel to septum); stigma entire or 2-lobed. Seed: 24--210, 1 row per chamber, oblong to ovate (+- spheric), plump, wing 0.
Species In Genus: 17 species: southwestern United States, northwestern Mexico. Etymology: (Greek: stem flower, in reference to insertion of flowers along stem)

Caulanthus major (M.E. Jones) Payson
NATIVE
Habit: Perennial herb from woody caudex, glabrous, or petioles, sepals occasionally hairy. Stem: erect, 2--10 dm, simple or branched distally (+- inflated). Leaf: basal rosetted, persistent; blade 1--14 cm, entire or dentate to pinnately lobed; distal short-petioled, much reduced, linear to narrowly oblanceolate, entire, base not lobed. Inflorescence: terminal sterile flower cluster 0. Flower: sepals erect, 6.5--9.5 mm, creamy white to purple; petals 11--17 mm, purple, margins not wavy; stamens 4 long, 2 short, filaments free. Fruit: erect to ascending, 4.5--12 cm, 2.2--2.8 mm wide, cylindric or only +- flattened; style 0.05--0.2(0.4) mm, stigma +- 2-lobed, lobes opposite valves; pedicel ascending, 1--6 mm. Seed: 46--58, 2--3.5 mm, oblong; cotyledons entire. Chromosomes: 2n=28.
Ecology: +- dry, generally rocky slopes, sagebrush, pinyon/juniper woodland; Elevation: 1500--3200 m. Bioregional Distribution: n SNH (Alpine Co.), SnGb, SnBr, s MP, e DMtns (Providence, New York mtns); Distribution Outside California: southeastern Oregon, northern and western Nevada, eastern Utah. Flowering Time: May--Jul
Synonyms: Streptanthus major (M.E. Jones) Jeps.; Caulanthus major var. major; Caulanthus major var. nevadensis Rollins
eFlora Treatment Author: Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz
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Citation for this treatment: Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz 2016. Caulanthus major, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=18407, accessed on February 11, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on February 11, 2016.


Caulanthus major
click for enlargement
© 2010 Aaron Schusteff
Caulanthus major
click for enlargement
© 2010 Aaron Schusteff
Caulanthus major
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© 2010 Aaron Schusteff
Caulanthus major
click for enlargement
© 2010 Aaron Schusteff
Caulanthus major var. nevadensis
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© 1998 Gary A. Monroe
Caulanthus major var. nevadensis
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© 1983 Gary A. Monroe

More photos of Caulanthus major in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Caulanthus major:
n SNH (Alpine Co.), SnGb, SnBr, s MP, e DMtns (Providence, New York mtns);
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.