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Vascular Plants of California
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Catharanthus roseus
MADAGASCAR PERIWINKLE


Higher Taxonomy
Family: ApocynaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: DOGBANE FAMILY
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, shrub, tree, often vine; sap generally milky. Leaf: simple, alternate, opposite, subwhorled to whorled, entire; stipules 0 or small, finger-like. Inflorescence: axillary or terminal, cyme, generally umbel- or raceme-like, or flowers 1--2. Flower: bisexual, radial; perianth parts, especially petals, overlapped, twisted to right or left, at least in bud; sepals generally 5, fused at base, often reflexed, persistent; petals generally 5, fused in basal +- 1/2; stamens generally 5, attached to corolla tube or throat, alternate lobes, free or fused to form filament column and anther head, filament column then generally with 5 free or fused, +- elaborate appendages abaxially, pollen +- free or removed in pairs of pollinia; nectaries 0 or near ovaries, then 2 or 5[10], or in stigmatic chambers; ovaries 2, superior or +- so, free [fused]; style tips, stigmas generally fused into massive pistil head. Fruit: 1--2 follicles, (capsule), [berry, drupe]. Seed: many, often with tuft of hairs at 1 or both ends.
Genera In Family: 200--450 genera, 3000--5000 species: all continents, especially tropics, subtropical South America, southern Africa; many ornamental (including Asclepias, Hoya, Nerium, Plumeria, Stapelia); cardiac glycosides, produced by some members formerly treated in Asclepiadaceae, used as arrow poisons, in medicine to control heart function, and by various insects for defense. Note: Asclepiadaceae ("asclepiads"), although monophyletic, included in Apocynaceae because otherwise the latter is paraphyletic. Complexity of floral structure, variation in asclepiads arguably greatest among all angiosperms. Pattern of carpel fusion (carpels free in ovule-bearing region, fused above), present +- throughout Apocynaceae (in broad sense), nearly unknown in other angiosperms. Base chromosome number generally 11; abundance of latex, generally small size of chromosomes evidently have impeded cytological investigations.
eFlora Treatment Author: Thomas J. Rosatti, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: CatharanthusView Description 


Habit: Perennial herb, evergreen, +- puberulent. Leaf: opposite to subopposite. Inflorescence: flowers generally 1 in leaf axils. Flower: calyx lobes long, slender; corolla tube +- cylindric, lobes asymmetric; filaments free, attached near top of corolla tube, +- straight, unappendaged, anthers held above stigma, free from each other, stigma, each completely fertile, pollen +- free; nectaries 2, alternate ovaries, widely spaced, generally exceeding ovaries; style thread-like, stigma skirted at base. Seed: glabrous.
Species In Genus: 3--7 species: Madagascar, India; cultivated, alien, widely naturalized in tropics, subtropics. Etymology: (Greek: pure flower)
eFlora Treatment Author: Thomas J. Rosatti
Reference: Kai et al. 1997 Soil Sci Pl Nutr 43:227--235
Unabridged Reference: Taylor & Farnsworth 1975 The Catharanthus alkaloids.
Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don
WAIF
Habit: Plant erect, 30--60 cm. Leaf: petiole generally < 1 cm; blade +- elliptic, base +- tapered, tip mucronate. Flower: corolla 3--5 cm wide at top, pink. Fruit: +- straight. Chromosomes: 2n=16.
Ecology: Canyons, desert springs; Elevation: < 200 m. Bioregional Distribution: SCo, D; Distribution Outside California: native to Madagascar. Flowering Time: Summer Note: Widely cultivated, naturalized in tropics, subtropics, often a waif in warm temperate; evidence of naturalization in California lacking; yields alkaloids extensively used in treatment of childhood leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, other human cancers.
Synonyms: Vinca rosea L.
Jepson eFlora Author: Thomas J. Rosatti
Reference: Kai et al. 1997 Soil Sci Pl Nutr 43:227--235
Unabridged Reference: Taylor & Farnsworth 1975 The Catharanthus alkaloids.
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Citation for this treatment: Thomas J. Rosatti 2012, Catharanthus roseus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=18352, accessed on August 21, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on August 21, 2019.

No expert verified images found for Catharanthus roseus.



Geographic subdivisions for Catharanthus roseus:
SCo, D
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Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
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Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.