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Carya illinoinensis

Higher Taxonomy
Family: JuglandaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Shrub, tree; monoecious. Leaf: odd-(even-)1-pinnate, alternate, deciduous; stipules 0. Inflorescence: catkin, generally appearing before leaves, 1 or clustered; flowers generally 1 in bract axils. Staminate Inflorescence: pendent, elongate, many-flowered, on last year's twigs. Pistillate Inflorescence: erect; flowers 1--many, at tip of new twigs. Staminate Flower: calyx [0 or] lobes generally 4 [2, 6]; petals 0; stamens 3--40[50]; pistil 0 or vestigial. Pistillate Flower: calyx [0] or lobes 4; petals 0; stamens 0; ovary 1, inferior, chamber 1 above, generally 2 below, styles 2, plumose. Fruit: nut enclosed in husk or winged nutlets.
Genera In Family: 9 genera, > 60 species: northern temperate, subtropical mountains; some ornamental, cultivated for wood, nuts (Carya hickory, pecan; Juglans walnut). Note: In Carya, Juglans, husk included in fruit diam, even though derived from involucre, calyx, and therefore not technically part of fruit.
eFlora Treatment Author: Alan T. Whittemore
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: CaryaView Description 

Common Name: HICKORY
Stem: Bark furrowed in age, gray; twig centers not chambered; buds scaly. Pistillate Inflorescence: flowers 1--few; in fruit erect. Pistillate Flower: styles short. Fruit: husk enclosing 1--3 unwinged nuts, splitting longitudinally, separating from fruit.
Species In Genus: +- 17 species: eastern North America, eastern Mexico, eastern Asia. Etymology: (Greek: nut)

Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch
Habit: Tree to 45 m. Stem: bark shallowly to deeply furrowed; terminal buds 6--7 mm, brown, scales valvate. Leaf: leaflets (7)9--13, lanceolate, 110--160 mm, 28--43 mm wide, sickle-shaped, acuminate. Staminate Inflorescence: +- sessile. Fruit: 3--4 cm, 1.5--2 cm diam, elliptic to +- cylindric, with four low wings along sutures; shell smooth.
Ecology: Riparian forest, watercourse margins; Elevation: < 600 m. Bioregional Distribution: SnJV, SCo; Distribution Outside California: eastern Texas, Louisiana to Illinois, Indiana. Flowering Time: Apr--May
Unabridged Note: See ICPN for discussion of variant spellings of epithet.
eFlora Treatment Author: Alan T. Whittemore
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Citation for this treatment: Alan T. Whittemore 2016. Carya illinoinensis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 01, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 01, 2016.

Geographic subdivisions for Carya illinoinensis:
SnJV, SCo;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.