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Vascular Plants of California
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Carpobrotus edulis
FREEWAY ICEPLANT


Higher Taxonomy
Family: AizoaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: FIG-MARIGOLD or ICEPLANT FAMILY
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, shrub, generally fleshy. Stem: underground to erect; root fibrous or tuberous. Leaf: generally simple, entire, flat, cylindric, 3-angled, or scale-like, generally cauline, generally opposite; stipules generally 0; blade papillate, pubescent, or generally glabrous, often glaucous. Inflorescence: cyme or 1-flowered, generally terminal. Flower: generally bisexual, radial; hypanthium present; sepals (3)5(8), often unequal; petals 0 or many in several whorls, free or fused at base, linear; stamens 1--many, free or fused in groups, outer often petal-like; nectary a ring or separate glands; pistil 1, ovary superior to inferior, chambers 1--20, placentas generally parietal, styles 0--20. Fruit: berry, nut, or generally capsule, opening by flaps or circumscissile. Seed: 1--many per chamber, generally ovoid, arilled or not.
Genera In Family: 130 genera, 2500 species: generally subtropics, especially southern Africa; many cultivated. Note: Galenia pubescens (Eckl. & Zeyh.) Druce, a waif, may be naturalizing in southern California.
Unabridged Note: Disphyma crassifolium (L.) L. Bolus (ovary glands convex, minute-crenate; stigmas dense-plumose; fruit chambers 5; seeds ovate, +- smooth), of tribe Ruschieae, an historical waif in California; Lampranthus coccineus (Haw.) N.E. Br.: (ovary glands fused; fruit chambers 5; seeds pear-shaped, +- black, rough), of Ruschieae, an historical waif or urban weed in California.
eFlora Treatment Author: Nancy J. Vivrette, John Bleck & Wayne R. Ferren, Jr., family description, key to genera
Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: CarpobrotusView DescriptionDichotomous Key


Habit: Shrub. Stem: trailing, forming mats, < 20 dm, nodes rooting; flower-branches ascending. Leaf: opposite, +- linear-elliptic, fleshy, glabrous, +- triangular in ×-section. Inflorescence: 1-flowered, terminal; bracts 2. Flower: 3--15 cm diam; sepals 5, unequal, margins of smaller 2--3 expanded, papery; petals free, magenta, pink, yellow, or white; stamens many, erect, white or yellow; ovary inferior, chambers 6--14[20], styles 0, stigmas 6--14[20], sessile, linear, hairy. Fruit: berry-like, fleshy, indehiscent. Seed: many, glossy brown, in fleshy pulp.
Species In Genus: 14 species: southern Africa, Chile, Australia. Etymology: (Greek: fruit edible)
eFlora Treatment Author: Nancy J. Vivrette
Carpobrotus edulis (L.) N.E. Br.
NATURALIZED
Stem: < 3 m. Leaf: widest below middle, not glaucous. Flower: pedicelled; sepals 3--4 cm, sharp-triangular in ×-section, outer angle serrate near tip; petals 3--4 cm. Fruit: triangular, +- flat toward pedicel. Chromosomes: n=18.
Ecology: Common. Many coastal habitats, especially sand; Elevation: < 100 m. Bioregional Distribution: NCo, CCo, SCo, ChI; Distribution Outside California: to Mexico; native to southern Africa. Flowering Time: +- all year Note: Hybridizes with Carpobrotus chilensis; extensively planted along highways and for dune stabilization; invasive.
Synonyms: Mesembryanthemum edule L.
Jepson eFlora Author: Nancy J. Vivrette
Jepson Online Interchange
Weed listed by Cal-IPC

Previous taxon: Carpobrotus chilensis
Next taxon: Conicosia

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Botanical illustration including Carpobrotus edulis

botanical illustration including Carpobrotus edulis

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Citation for this treatment: Nancy J. Vivrette 2012, Carpobrotus edulis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=17975, accessed on August 18, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on August 18, 2019.

Carpobrotus edulis
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© 2018 Neal Kramer
Carpobrotus edulis
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© 2016 Neal Kramer
Carpobrotus edulis
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© 2009 Neal Kramer
Carpobrotus edulis
click for enlargement
© 2009 California Academy of Sciences
Carpobrotus edulis
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer
Carpobrotus edulis
click for enlargement
© 2009 California Academy of Sciences

More photos of Carpobrotus edulis in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Carpobrotus edulis:
NCo, CCo, SCo, ChI
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

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Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
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All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.