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Carnegiea gigantea

Higher Taxonomy
Family: CactaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Perennial herb, shrub, tree, generally fleshy. Stem: cylindric to spheric, or flat; surface smooth, tubercled, or ribbed (grooved); nodal areoles bearing flowers. Leaf: generally 0 or early-deciduous, flat to +- cylindric. Spines: areoles generally with central, radial spines, occasionally with glochids. Flower: generally 1 per areole, bisexual [unisexual], sessile, radial [bilateral]; perianth parts generally many [5], scale-like to petal-like; stamens many; ovary inferior [superior], style 1, stigma lobes generally several [many]. Fruit: dry to fleshy or juicy, indehiscent to variously dehiscent, spiny, scaly, or naked; tubercled or smooth. Seed: generally many, occasionally 0--few.
Genera In Family: +- 125 genera, +- 1800 species: America (especially deserts), Africa; many cultivated, some edible. Note: Spines smaller, fewer (0) in shade forms; yellow spines blacken in age. Introduced species increasingly escape cultivation. Hybridization common in some genera. Taxa of Escobaria in TJM (1993) moved to Coryphantha.
eFlora Treatment Author: Bruce D. Parfitt, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Bruce D. Parfitt, Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: CarnegieaView Description 

Common Name: SAGUARO

Species In Genus: 1 sp.: California, Arizona, Mexico. Etymology: (Andrew Carnegie, American industrialist, philanthropist, 1835--1919)
eFlora Treatment Author: Bruce D. Parfitt

Carnegiea gigantea (Engelm.) Britton & Rose
Habit: Tree, branches erect or ascending from sides of trunk, 1--10, generally 0 in basal 1.5--2 m. Stem: massive, 3--16 m, 30--75 cm diam, columnar, firm, not regularly segmented; ribs 12--30, prominent; tubercles +- 0. Spines: (8)15--28(50) per areole, 1--1.5 mm diam, stout, needle-like to awl-shaped, straight to +- curved; central spines (0)4--7 per areole. Flower: generally +- terminal, occasionally lateral, at distal edge of spine cluster, 8.5--12.5 cm, 5--6 cm diam; outer perianth parts green, margins lighter; inner perianth parts petal-like, white; ovary green, tubercled, scaly, scales triangular, spines 0 (or spines bristle-like), glabrous, style 10--15 mm. Fruit: 45--75 mm, 25--45 mm diam, obovoid to ellipsoid, dehiscent by 2+ vertical splits, red, occasionally thin-white-spined. Seed: 1.5--2 mm, obovoid, shiny, black. Chromosomes: 2n=22.
Ecology: Rocky hills, plains; Elevation: < 1500 m. Bioregional Distribution: e DSon; Distribution Outside California: southern Arizona, northwestern Mexico. Flowering Time: May--Jun
Synonyms: Cereus giganteus Engelm.
eFlora Treatment Author: Bruce D. Parfitt
Jepson Online Interchange
Listed on CNPS Rare Plant Inventory

Previous taxon: Carnegiea
Next taxon: Coryphantha

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botanical illustration including Carnegiea gigantea


Citation for this treatment: Bruce D. Parfitt 2012, Carnegiea gigantea, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on December 16, 2017.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2017, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on December 16, 2017.

Carnegiea gigantea
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© 2013 Barry Rice
Carnegiea gigantea
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© 2010 Keir Morse
Carnegiea gigantea
click for enlargement
© 2010 Keir Morse
Carnegiea gigantea
click for enlargement
© 2010 Keir Morse
Carnegiea gigantea
click for enlargement
© 2010 Keir Morse
Carnegiea gigantea
click for enlargement
© 2015 California Academy of Sciences

More photos of Carnegiea gigantea in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Carnegiea gigantea:
e DSon;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.