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Vascular Plants of California
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Cannabis sativa
HEMP, MARIJUANA


Higher Taxonomy
Family: CannabaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: HEMP FAMILY
Habit: Tree, shrub, or erect or twining perennial herb; dioecious or flowers staminate and bisexual, wind-pollinated; epidermis with stiff hairs, glandular or not; sap watery. Leaf: petioled; simple, unlobed or palmately lobed or compound, all alternate or lower opposite. Inflorescence: terminal or axillary, unisexual or with both male and bisexual flowers. Flower: perianth parts 4--6, free or fused; stamens 0 or 4--6; ovary 0 or 1, superior, chamber 1, ovule 1, style 1, short, stigmas 2, slender, plumose. Fruit: drupe or achene, occasionally +- enclosed in persistent perianth.
Genera In Family: 11 genera, +- 100 species: temperate, tropical areas worldwide.
eFlora Treatment Author: Alan T. Whittemore, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: CannabisView Description 


Common Name: HEMP

Species In Genus: 1 sp. Etymology: (Greek, Latin: hemp)
eFlora Treatment Author: Alan T. Whittemore & Elizabeth McClintock
Reference: Small & Cronquist 1976 Taxon 25:405--435
Cannabis sativa L.
NATURALIZED
Habit: Annual, erect; hairs unbranched. Stem: branched, < 4 m; inner bark fibrous. Leaf: lower opposite, palmately compound, upper alternate, palmately compound to occasionally simple; leaflets generally 3--7, < 15 cm, narrowly lanceolate, coarsely serrate. Staminate Inflorescence: panicle- or spike-like, > 15 cm, +- open. Pistillate Inflorescence: erect to spreading, > 2 cm, dense. Pistillate Flower: perianth parts fused into a short, unlobed tube or ring. Fruit: achene, 1--2 mm, generally +- enclosed in persistent perianth.
Ecology: Disturbed areas; Elevation: generally < 600 m. Bioregional Distribution: CA-FP; Distribution Outside California: possibly native to central Asia, but cultivated since pre-history. Flowering Time: Jun--Oct Note: Highly variable. Psychoactive resin (THC) concentrated in pistillate inflorescences; used in medicine; stem fibers for rope, fabric, paper, etc.
Synonyms: Cannabis indica Lam.
Unabridged Note: It is very difficult to ascertain the true range for Cannabis sativa as a naturalized plant, since it is often illicitly planted in wild areas. The great majority of collections from California come from elevations below 600 m, but very few specimens from higher elevations (up to nearly 1500 m) have been seen. It is questionable whether the sp. is really established in California at elevations above 600 m.
Jepson eFlora Author: Alan T. Whittemore & Elizabeth McClintock
Reference: Small & Cronquist 1976 Taxon 25:405--435
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Botanical illustration including Cannabis sativa

botanical illustration including Cannabis sativa

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Citation for this treatment: Alan T. Whittemore & Elizabeth McClintock 2012, Cannabis sativa, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=17076, accessed on August 25, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on August 25, 2019.

Cannabis sativa
click for enlargement
© 2017 Barry Rice
Cannabis sativa
click for enlargement
© 2017 Barry Rice
Cannabis sativa
click for enlargement
© 2017 Barry Rice
Cannabis sativa
click for enlargement
© 2017 Barry Rice
Cannabis sativa
click for enlargement
© 2017 Barry Rice
Cannabis sativa
click for enlargement
© 2017 Barry Rice

More photos of Cannabis sativa in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Cannabis sativa:
CA-FP
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.