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Brassica napus
SWEDE RAPE, RAPESEED

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Brassicaceae (Cruciferae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: MUSTARD FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub; sap pungent, watery. Leaf: generally simple, alternate; generally both basal, cauline; stipules 0. Inflorescence: generally raceme, generally not bracted. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals 4, generally free; petals (0)4, forming a cross, generally white or yellow to purple; stamens generally 6 (2 or 4), 4 long, 2 short (3 pairs of unequal length); ovary 1, superior, generally 2-chambered with septum connecting 2 parietal placentas; style 1, stigma entire or 2-lobed. Fruit: capsule, generally 2-valved, "silique" (length >= 3 × width) or "silicle" (length < 3 × width), dehiscent by 2 valves or indehiscent, cylindric or flat parallel or perpendicular to septum, segmented or not. Seed: 1--many, in 1 or 2 rows per chamber, winged or wingless; embryo strongly curved.
Genera In Family: +- 330 genera, 3780 species: worldwide, especially temperate. Note: Highest diversity in Mediterranean area, mountains of southwestern Asia, adjacent central Asia, western North America; some Brassica species are oil or vegetable crops; Arabidopsis thaliana used in experimental molecular biology; many species are ornamentals, weeds. Aurinia saxatilis (L.) Desvaux in cultivation only. Aubrieta occasional waif in central NCoR, Carrichtera annua (L.) DC. in SCo, Iberis sempervirens L., Iberis umbellata L. in PR, Teesdalia coronopifolia (Bergeret) Thell., Teesdalia nudicaulis (L.) W.T. Aiton in southern NCoRO, CCo. Cardaria, Coronopus moved to Lepidium; Caulostramina to Hesperidanthus; Guillenia to Caulanthus; Heterodraba to Athysanus; California taxa of Lesquerella to Physaria; Malcolmia africana to Strigosella.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: BrassicaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: MUSTARD
Habit: Annual to perennial herb; hairs simple or 0. Stem: erect, simple or branched, glabrous or hairy distally. Leaf: basal petioled, generally rosetted, dentate to pinnately lobed; cauline petioled or sessile, bases lobed or not. Inflorescence: terminal. Flower: sepals erect to ascending, base generally not sac-like; petals generally yellow, clawed. Fruit: silique, linear, dehiscent, segmented, round or 4-sided to flat parallel to septum; valves 1-veined, glabrous; terminal segment conic to cylindric, 0--3-seeded; stigma entire to +- 2-lobed. Seed: (4)10--50, in 1 row, spheric to ovoid.
Species In Genus: 35 species: Mediterranean, Eurasia, some naturalized +- worldwide. Etymology: (Latin: cabbage) Note: Brassica including most important vegetable, seed-oil, condiment crops in Brassicaceae.

Brassica napus L.
NATURALIZED
Habit: Annual, biennial, glabrous or hairy, glaucous. Stem: 3--13 dm, branched distally. Leaf: basal pinnately lobed, 0.5--5.5 dm; middle, distal cauline sessile, base strongly lobed or clasping. Flower: not overtopping buds; sepals (5)6--10 mm; petals 10--16 mm, (5)6--9(10) mm wide. Fruit: ascending, (3.5)5--10(11) cm, (2.5)3.5--5 mm wide; terminal segment (5)9--16 mm, seed 0(2); pedicel spreading to ascending, 1--3 cm, slender. Seed: 1.8--2.7(3) mm wide, spheric. Chromosomes: 2n=38.
Ecology: Disturbed areas, fields; Elevation: < 500 m. Bioregional Distribution: SnJV, SCo; Distribution Outside California: widespread North America, native to Europe. Flowering Time: May--Sep Note: Source of canola oil.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz
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Citation for this treatment: Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz 2016. Brassica napus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=16077, accessed on December 08, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on December 08, 2016.


Geographic subdivisions for Brassica napus:
SnJV, SCo;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.