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Bouteloua curtipendula
SIDE-OATS GRAMA

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Poaceae (Gramineae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: GRASS FAMILY
Habit: Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1--many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally +- transparent, +- enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
Genera In Family: 650--900 genera; +- 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). Note: Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761--770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr., except as noted
Scientific Editor: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Genus: BoutelouaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: GRAMA
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, generally cespitose. Stem: solid, generally glabrous. Leaf: generally basal; ligule generally < 1 mm, generally hairy; blade flat to inrolled, adaxial surface generally puberulent or short-hairy, often ciliate near ligule, hairs long, bulbous-based. Inflorescence: generally panicle-like; branches spike-like, 1 per node, persistent or deciduous in fruit; spikelets 2-rowed on 1 side of axis, overlapping. Spikelet: sessile or short-stalked, +- cylindric to laterally compressed; glumes generally unequal, generally lanceolate, 1-veined, upper glume firmer than lower; axis (if inflorescence branch persistent) breaking between glumes and lower floret; florets generally 2--3, lower floret bisexual, > upper, upper floret(s) generally reduced, sterile; lemma 3-veined, generally 3-awned, awns straight, scabrous; palea +- = lemma.
Species In Genus: 57 species: America. Etymology: (Claudio (b. 1774) and Esteban (b. 1776) Boutelou, Spanish botanists, horticulturists) Note: Many species important for forage.
eFlora Treatment Author: J. Travis Columbus

Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr.
NATIVE
Habit: Perennial herb, sometimes rhizomed. Stem: generally erect, 2--9 dm. Leaf: blade < 25 cm, < 4 mm wide. Inflorescence: branches 13--60, 5--20 mm, generally pendent, deciduous in fruit; branch axis slightly prolonged beyond terminal spikelet node, base puberulent; spikelets 1--8 per branch, ascending to appressed, falling with branch. Spikelet: upper glume 4--8 mm, glabrous or scabrous, acute or awned < 0.5 mm; florets 1--2; lower floret lemma < to +- = upper glume, glabrous or sparsely hairy, lobes 0, awns 2, lateral, < 2 mm; base of upper floret (if present) glabrous, tip 2-lobed, central awn from sinus, < 6 mm, lateral awns < 4 mm. Chromosomes: 2n=20,28,35,40--103.
Ecology: Dry, rocky slopes, crevices, sandy to rocky drainages, scrub, woodland; Elevation: < 1900 m. Bioregional Distribution: s ScV (Yolo Co. as roadside waif), e PR, e&s DMtns, sw DSon; Distribution Outside California: to southern Canada, eastern United States, southern Mexico, South America. Flowering Time: Apr--Nov Note: If recognized taxonomically, plants with erect stems, rhizomes 0 assignable to Bouteloua curtipendula var. caespitosa Gould & Kapadia.
eFlora Treatment Author: J. Travis Columbus
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Citation for this treatment: J. Travis Columbus 2016. Bouteloua curtipendula, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=15975, accessed on December 04, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on December 04, 2016.


Bouteloua curtipendula
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© 2015 Keir Morse
Bouteloua curtipendula var. curtipendula
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© 2016 Keir Morse
Bouteloua curtipendula
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© 2009 James M. Andre
Bouteloua curtipendula
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© 2012 Aaron Schusteff
Bouteloua curtipendula
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© 2015 Keir Morse
Bouteloua curtipendula
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© 2015 Keir Morse

More photos of Bouteloua curtipendula in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Bouteloua curtipendula:
s ScV (Yolo Co. as roadside waif), e PR, e&s DMtns, sw DSon;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.