Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Vascular Plants of California
Key to families | Table of families and genera
Previous taxon Index to accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Next taxon


Berberis aquifolium


Higher Taxonomy
Family: BerberidaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: BARBERRY FAMILY
Habit: Perennial herb, shrub, [tree], generally rhizomed, caudexed or not, glabrous, glaucous, or hairy. Stem: spreading to erect, branched or not. Leaf: simple, 1--3-ternate, or pinnately compound, basal and cauline, generally alternate, deciduous or evergreen, petioled, stipuled. Inflorescence: generally raceme, spike, or panicle, scapose, terminal, or axillary. Flower: generally bisexual, radial; sepals 6--18 or 0, generally in whorls of 3; petals generally 6, in 2 whorls of 3, or 0; stamens 6--12(13), free or fused at base, in 2 whorls or not, anthers dehiscent by flap-like valves or longitudinal slits; ovary superior, chamber 1, ovules generally 1--10, style 1 or 0, stigma flat or spheric. Fruit: berry, capsule, achene [follicle].
Genera In Family: 16 genera, +- 670 species: temperate, tropics worldwide; some cultivated (Berberis, Epimedium, Nandina (heavenly bamboo), Vancouveria). Note: Lower sepals sometimes called "bracteoles," inner petals "staminodes".
eFlora Treatment Author: Michael P. Williams
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: BerberisView DescriptionDichotomous Key


Common Name: OREGON-GRAPE, BARBERRY
Habit: Shrub, generally rhizomed. Stem: spreading to erect, branched, spiny or not, vine-like or not; inner bark, wood generally bright yellow; over-wintering bud scales deciduous or not. Leaf: simple or pinnately compound, cauline, alternate, generally leathery, generally persistent; leaflets generally 3--11, +- round to lanceolate, generally spine-toothed. Inflorescence: raceme, axillary or terminal. Flower: sepals 9 in 3 whorls of 3; petals 6 in 2 whorls of 3, bases generally glandular; stamens 6; ovules 2--9, stigma +- spheric. Fruit: berry, spheric to elliptic, generally purple-black.
Species In Genus: +- 600 species: temperate worldwide. Etymology: (Latin: ancient Arabic name for barberry) Toxicity: Roots often TOXIC: spines may inject fungal spores into skin. Note: Contact with filament causes stamen to snap inward, possibly to deposit pollen on pollinator.
Reference: Kim 2004 J Pl Res 117:175--182
Unabridged Reference: Moran 1982 Phytologia 52:221--226, for relationship between Berberis, Mahonia.
Berberis aquifolium Pursh
NATIVE
Stem: spreading to erect, 0.1--2 m; bud scales generally deciduous. Leaf: cauline, not crowded, 8--24 cm; petiole generally 3--6 cm; leaflets 5--9, terminal 2--7.5 cm, 1.5--4.5 cm wide, +- round to elliptic, +- flat to strongly wavy, base +- lobed to wedge-shaped, tip acute to obtuse (except tooth), margin serrate, spines 6--24(40) per side, 1--5 mm. Inflorescence: 3--6 cm, dense; axis internodes 2--4 mm in flower, fruit. Fruit: 4--7 mm diam, ovoid to obovoid, glaucous, blue to purple. Seed: 4--5 mm.
Note: Varieties intergrade, need study; abaxial papillae on leaves evidently of no taxonomic value.
Unabridged Note: Presence or absence of abaxial papillae on leaves varies within, between populations and does not appear to provide a reliable taxonomic character.
Jepson eFlora Author: Michael P. Williams
Reference: Kim 2004 J Pl Res 117:175--182
Unabridged Reference: Moran 1982 Phytologia 52:221--226, for relationship between Berberis, Mahonia.
Jepson Online Interchange

Previous taxon: Berberis
Next taxon: Berberis aquifolium var. aquifolium

Name Search

Contact/Feedback

Citation for this treatment: Michael P. Williams 2012, Berberis aquifolium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=15587, accessed on June 24, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on June 24, 2019.

Berberis aquifolium var. dictyota
click for enlargement
© 2008 George W. Hartwell
Berberis aquifolium var. dictyota
click for enlargement
© 2017 Neal Kramer
Berberis aquifolium var. dictyota
click for enlargement
© 2009 Barry Breckling
Berberis aquifolium var. repens
click for enlargement
© 2005 Steve Matson
Berberis aquifolium var. aquifolium
click for enlargement
© 2008 Keir Morse
Berberis aquifolium var. dictyota
click for enlargement
© 2008 George W. Hartwell

More photos of Berberis aquifolium var. dictyota in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Berberis aquifolium:
MAP CONTROLS
1. You can change the display of the base map and layers by clicking on the layer control box in the upper right-hand corner.
2. California county polygons can be turned off and on in the layer control box.
3. Filling of Jepson subdivision polygons can be turned off and on in the layer control box.
4. Moving the cursor over any numbered cluster will show the range boundary of the included specimens (with a blue polygon).
5. Marker clustering can be turned off by clicking this link:      Marker Clustering OFF
WARNING: Turning this off might cause maps with large numbers of specimens to load slowly.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

View elevation by latitude chart


Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
MAP LEGEND
View all CCH records
All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
READ ABOUT YELLOW FLAGS


CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.