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Vascular Plants of California
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Bellardia trixago

Higher Taxonomy
Family: OrobanchaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, shrub; often glandular; root-parasites, roots modified into absorptive structures. Stem: generally round in ×-section. Leaf: generally simple, generally alternate, reduced to +- fleshy scales in non-green plants lacking chlorophyll; stipules generally 0. Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1--2 in axils. Flower: bisexual; calyx lobes 0--5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed), abaxial lobes outside other lobes in bud; stamens epipetalous, 4 in 2 pairs (sometimes 1 pair sterile), additional staminode 0(1), anther sacs unequal; ovary superior, chambers 1--2, placentas 2--4, parietal, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: capsule, generally +- ovoid, loculicidal, valves 2--4. Seed: many, small, angled; surface smooth or netted.
Genera In Family: 101 genera, 2060 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate and Africa. Note: High yield losses in many crops caused by Orobanche and Phelipanche species in Africa, Mediterranean, Middle East, and eastern Europe. Taxa of Orobanche in TJM2 treated here in Aphyllon and Phelipanche.
eFlora Treatment Author: Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: BellardiaView Description 

Habit: Annual, glandular-hairy. Stem: erect, generally simple. Leaf: opposite distally on stem, sessile, toothed. Inflorescence: raceme, spike-like, bracted. Flower: calyx 4-lobed; corolla 2-lipped, upper lip hood-like, pink, lower lip > upper, white, 3-lobed, throat with 2 ridges; stamens 4, in 2 pairs, included, anthers hairy, awned at base; stigma club-shaped, +- exserted. Fruit: ovoid, loculicidal. Seed: many, small, ridged.
Species In Genus: 1--2 species: Mediterranean. Etymology: (C.A.L. Bellardi, Italian botany professor, 1740--1826)
eFlora Treatment Author: Margriet Wetherwax
Reference: Molau 1990 Opera Bot 102:27
Bellardia trixago (L.) All.
Habit: Plant glandular-hairy. Stem: occasionally branched distally, 15--80 cm. Leaf: 15--90 mm, lanceolate, coarsely crenate-dentate. Inflorescence: bracts reduced distally on inflorescence axis, becoming ovate, cordate, +- entire. Flower: calyx 8--10 mm, lobes 1--1.5 mm, unequal, triangular; corolla 20--25 mm. Fruit: +- 7 mm. Seed: 0.5--1 mm, +- oblong. Chromosomes: 2n=24.
Ecology: Disturbed grassland; Elevation: < 710 m. Bioregional Distribution: NCo, NCoRO, ScV, CW; Distribution Outside California: native to Mediterranean. Flowering Time: Apr--Jun
Jepson eFlora Author: Margriet Wetherwax
Reference: Molau 1990 Opera Bot 102:27
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Botanical illustration including Bellardia trixago

botanical illustration including Bellardia trixago


Citation for this treatment: Margriet Wetherwax 2012, Bellardia trixago, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on December 15, 2018.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2018, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on December 15, 2018.

Bellardia trixago
click for enlargement
© 2018 Neal Kramer
Bellardia trixago
click for enlargement
© 2018 Neal Kramer
Bellardia trixago
click for enlargement
© 2018 Neal Kramer
Bellardia trixago
click for enlargement
© 2007 Neal Kramer
Bellardia trixago
click for enlargement
© 2018 Neal Kramer

More photos of Bellardia trixago in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Bellardia trixago:
NCo, NCoRO, ScV, CW;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.