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Barbarea verna
EARLY WINTER CRESS

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Brassicaceae (Cruciferae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: MUSTARD FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub; sap pungent, watery. Leaf: generally simple, alternate; generally both basal, cauline; stipules 0. Inflorescence: generally raceme, generally not bracted. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals 4, generally free; petals (0)4, forming a cross, generally white or yellow to purple; stamens generally 6 (2 or 4), 4 long, 2 short (3 pairs of unequal length); ovary 1, superior, generally 2-chambered with septum connecting 2 parietal placentas; style 1, stigma entire or 2-lobed. Fruit: capsule, generally 2-valved, "silique" (length >= 3 × width) or "silicle" (length < 3 × width), dehiscent by 2 valves or indehiscent, cylindric or flat parallel or perpendicular to septum, segmented or not. Seed: 1--many, in 1 or 2 rows per chamber, winged or wingless; embryo strongly curved.
Genera In Family: +- 330 genera, 3780 species: worldwide, especially temperate. Note: Highest diversity in Mediterranean area, mountains of southwestern Asia, adjacent central Asia, western North America; some Brassica species are oil or vegetable crops; Arabidopsis thaliana used in experimental molecular biology; many species are ornamentals, weeds. Aurinia saxatilis (L.) Desvaux in cultivation only. Aubrieta occasional waif in central NCoR, Carrichtera annua (L.) DC. in SCo, Iberis sempervirens L., Iberis umbellata L. in PR, Teesdalia coronopifolia (Bergeret) Thell., Teesdalia nudicaulis (L.) W.T. Aiton in southern NCoRO, CCo. Cardaria, Coronopus moved to Lepidium; Caulostramina to Hesperidanthus; Guillenia to Caulanthus; Heterodraba to Athysanus; California taxa of Lesquerella to Physaria; Malcolmia africana to Strigosella.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: BarbareaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: WINTER CRESS, ROCKET
Habit: Biennial, perennial herb, erect; hairs simple or 0. Stem: angled. Leaf: basal petioled, rosetted, pinnately lobed, terminal lobe > lateral; cauline dentate or pinnately lobed; middle, distal sessile, base lobed. Inflorescence: terminal; bracts 0. Flower: sepals erect or spreading, base not sac-like; petals yellow, +- clawed. Fruit: silique, linear, dehiscent, unsegmented, cylindric to +- 4-sided or flat parallel to septum; valves strongly 1-veined, glabrous; stigma entire to +- 2-lobed. Seed: 10--40, in 1 row, wingless.
Species In Genus: 22 species: North America, Eurasia, Australia, northern Africa. Etymology: (Saint Barbara)

Barbarea verna (Mill.) Asch.
NATURALIZED
Stem: (1)2.5--8 dm, branched, glabrous. Leaf: pinnately lobed; basal 2--18 cm, lateral lobe pairs (3)6--10; cauline lateral lobe pairs 1--4, base strongly lobed. Flower: sepals 3--5 mm; petals (5)6--7(8.5) mm, yellow. Fruit: ascending, 4.5--8 cm, straight; style 0.2--1(2) mm; pedicel (2)3--6(7) mm, stout, width +- = fruit. Seed: (34)38--48(52), 1.8--2.5 mm, oblong. Chromosomes: 2n=16.
Ecology: Uncommon. Damp soils, fields, rocky outcrops, disturbed areas; Elevation: < 1600 m. Bioregional Distribution: SCoRO (Monterey Co.); Distribution Outside California: widespread to British Columbia, eastern North America; native to Eurasia. Flowering Time: Mar--Jul
eFlora Treatment Author: Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz
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Citation for this treatment: Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz 2016. Barbarea verna, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=15483, accessed on July 24, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on July 24, 2016.


Geographic subdivisions for Barbarea verna:
SCoRO (Monterey Co.);
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.