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Asperugo procumbens

Higher Taxonomy
Family: BoraginaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: BORAGE or WATERLEAF FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub or small tree, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1--2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, generally without scales at tube base, with 0 or 5 appendages at tube top, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary generally superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1--4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
Genera In Family: +- 120 genera, +- 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum, Wigandia). Toxicity: Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. Note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. Wigandia urens added, as naturalized.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.
Genus: AsperugoView Description 

Common Name: MADWORT

Species In Genus: 1 sp. Etymology: (Latin: rough, from hairs)

Asperugo procumbens L.
NATURALIZED
Habit: Annual, bristly, stout hairs curved to reflexed, base bulbous. Stem: prostrate to weakly decumbent, 3--8 dm, angled, branches many. Leaf: +- cauline, opposite at base, alternate above, petioled to sessile above; blades 2--7 cm, oblanceolate to elliptic, scabrous. Inflorescence: flowers 1--2 per leaf axil; pedicels reflexed in fruit. Flower: calyx 5-lobed, 2--3 mm, in fruit expanded, compressed, 5--8 mm, 10--15 mm wide, papery, with 1--2 teeth per lobe, enclosing nutlets; corolla 2--3 mm, 2 mm diam, +- funnel-shaped, blue-violet; stamens included, anthers free, sessile. Fruit: nutlets +- erect, 2--4, 2--3 mm, compressed, ovate, dark, shiny, minute-tubercled, scar lateral. Chromosomes: 2n=48.
Ecology: Disturbed areas; Elevation: 1000--1500 m. Bioregional Distribution: MP; Distribution Outside California: widespread United States; native to central and eastern Europe. Flowering Time: Apr--Jul Note: Most collections historical.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley
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Citation for this treatment: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley 2016. Asperugo procumbens, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=14486, accessed on July 27, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on July 27, 2016.


Geographic subdivisions for Asperugo procumbens:
MP;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.