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Arum italicum
ITALIAN ARUM

Higher Taxonomy
Family: AraceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: ARUM FAMILY
Habit: Perennial herb, [shrub, vine], terrestrial [growing on other plants or not], or aquatic, sometimes free-floating, then sometimes much reduced, in dense, clonal populations, 0.4--10 mm, flat and tongue-shaped to spheric, not differentiated into stems and leaves, new plants produced in budding pouch at base or along margins, sometimes overwintering on bottom as dense, rootless, starch-filled daughter plant (winter bud); often from short, generally erect caudex; roots 0--many; often monoecious. Stem: sometimes above ground in addition to caudex, or not differentiated from plant body. Leaf: simple or compound, basal (or cauline, 2-ranked), or not differentiated from plant body. Inflorescence: generally spike, fleshy, generally ill-smelling, or flower 1, rarely seen, minute, appearing like 2--3 unisexual flowers, often sheathed by minute membrane; flowers bisexual or pistillate below, staminate above; bract subtending spike 1, generally showy (petal-like), generally > spike, sheathing or not. Flower: perianth parts 0, 4, 6, free or fused; stamens 0--4, 6, free or fused; ovary superior to 1/2-inferior and sunken in inflorescence axis, chambers 1--3, stigma +- sessile. Fruit: berry or achene-like, winged or not. Seed: 1--many, often ribbed.
Genera In Family: +- 114 genera, 1850 species: generally tropics, subtropics some cultivated for food, ornamental in ponds, aquaria (Colocasia, taro) or ornamental (Philodendron, Anthurium). Note: Since TJM (1993), including Lemnaceae, and except Acorus, now in Acoraceae (the sole member in California, Acorus calamus L., is an historical waif). Pistia stratiotes L. is a waif. Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Breitenbach possibly naturalized in California. In taxa once included in Lemnaceae, vein number per plant body best determined using backlight.
Unabridged Note: Since TJM (1993), including Lemnaceae, except Acorus, now in Acoraceae (the sole representative of the family in California, Acorus calamus, judged to be an historical waif in California and therefore here except). Incl smallest of all known angiosperms (Wolffia globosa) as well as world's most massive inflorescence (spike of Amorphophallus titanum, Titan Arum, to 4 m in circumference). Needle-like crystals in most tissues cause intense irritation when chewed; those of Dieffenbachia, dumb-cane, may induce temporary speechlessness. Incl of fossil evidence in cladistic analyses indicate Lemnaceae and Pistia form a monophyletic group within Araceae (Stockey et al.), a position now generally accepted (see Les et al.). Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Makino ex Breitenbach introduced, possibly naturalized in California. Taxa formerly included in Lemnaceae may be very invasive. In taxa formerly included in Lemnaceae, vein number per plant body best determined using backlight. Peltandra virginica (L.) Schott & Endl., included in TJM (1993), reportedly spread from ornamental pool introduction in 1970 to nearby reserviors, but degree of reproduction or even persistence there unknown.
eFlora Treatment Author: Thomas J. Rosatti, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: ArumView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Terrestrial, tuberous; monoecious. Leaf: basal; blade hastate to sagittate, veins generally +- pale; petiole +- >= blade. Inflorescence: generally exceeded by bract, tip with +- cylindric appendage; peduncle < petiole, generally << leaf; bract +- tubular, enclosing inflorescence at base, withering before fruit, blade abaxially pale yellow-green, adaxially +- white to pale yellow-green or dark purple, margins pale green to white or not; flowers pistillate proximally, staminate distally, generally sterile between pistillate and staminate and distal to staminate. Staminate Flower: perianth 0; stamens 3--4. Pistillate Flower: ovary chamber 1, ovules in 2 series.
Species In Genus: +- 25 species: Eurasia, northern Africa. Etymology: (Greek: ancient name) Note: Some cultivated as ornamental or for food.

Arum italicum Mill.
NATURALIZED
Habit: Tuber horizontal. Leaf: blade < 35 cm; petiole < 42 cm. Inflorescence: < 1/2 bract, tip appendage yellow; bract blade 15--32 cm. Fruit: orange-red.
Ecology: Uncommon. Disturbed, generally shaded areas; Elevation: < 500 m. Bioregional Distribution: NCo, NCoRO, ScV, SnFrB; Distribution Outside California: native to Europe, western Asia, northern Africa. Flowering Time: Mar--Jun Note: Cult as ornamental.
eFlora Treatment Author: Thomas J. Rosatti
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Citation for this treatment: Thomas J. Rosatti 2016. Arum italicum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=14303, accessed on February 06, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on February 06, 2016.


Arum italicum
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© 2012 Barry Rice
Arum italicum
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© 2012 Barry Rice
Arum italicum
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© 2015 Barry Breckling
Arum italicum
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© 2012 Barry Rice
Arum italicum
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© 2014 Neal Kramer
Arum italicum
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© 2012 Barry Rice

More photos of Arum italicum in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Arum italicum:
NCo, NCoRO, ScV, SnFrB;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.