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Arctostaphylos virgata
MARIN MANZANITA

Higher Taxonomy
Family: EricaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: HEATH FAMILY
Habit: Perennial herb, shrub, tree. Stem: bark often peeling distinctively. Leaf: simple or 0, generally cauline, alternate, opposite (whorled), evergreen or deciduous, often leathery, petioled or not; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, cyme, or flowers 1, terminal or axillary, generally bracted; pedicel often with 2 bractlets. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, bell-shaped, cylindric, or urn-shaped; sepals generally (0)4--5, generally free; petals generally (0)4--5, free or fused; stamens (2--5)8--10, free, filaments rarely appendaged, anthers dehiscing by pores or slits, awns 0 or 2(4), seemingly abaxial, reduced or elongate, generally curved; nectary generally present at ovary base, generally disk-like; ovary superior or inferior, chambers generally 1--5, placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1--many per chamber, style 1, stigma head- to funnel-like or lobed. Fruit: capsule, drupe, berry. Seed: generally many, winged or not.
Genera In Family: +- 100 genera, 3000 species: generally worldwide except deserts; some cultivated, especially Arbutus, Arctostaphylos, Rhododendron, Vaccinium. Note: Monophyletic only if Empetraceae included, as treated here. Ledum included in Rhododendron. Non-green plants obtain nutrition from green plants through fungal intermediates.
eFlora Treatment Author: Gary D. Wallace, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Gary D. Wallace, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: ArctostaphylosView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: MANZANITA
Habit: Shrub to small tree, prostrate to erect. Stem: old stems generally +- red, smooth, bark generally thin, peeling, or generally +- gray or red-gray, shredding and rough; burls at base, woody, sprouting after fire, or generally 0; twig hairs 0 or generally +- like those on inflorescence axes, bracts. Leaf: alternate, evergreen; blade flat to convex, base lobed to wedge-shaped, clasping stem or not, margins generally flat, surfaces with stomata generally both abaxially, adaxially, alike in color, hairiness, less often only or fewer abaxially, generally differing in color, hairiness. Inflorescence: +- raceme (generally 0--1-branched) or panicle (generally 2--10-branched), terminal, nascent inflorescence present following stem growth, generally late spring through winter, remaining dormant 4--6 months prior to flower (except in Arctostaphylos pringlei subsp. drupacea); branches 0 or raceme-like; flower bracts leaf-like, generally flat, or scale-like, often folded, keeled, tips rounded to acute to awl-shaped. Flower: radial; sepals 5(4), free, persistent; corolla conic to urn-shaped, lobes in number = sepals, short, rounded, curved back, white to pink; stamens 2 × number of sepals, included, filaments swollen, generally hairy at base, anthers dark red, awns elongate; ovary superior, on disk, 4--10-chambered, ovule 1 per chamber. Fruit: drupe, generally +- depressed-spheric to spheric; flesh generally thick, +- mealy, occasionally 0; stones 2--10, free, fused, or some fused.
Species In Genus: +- 62 species: North America (especially California) to Central America, Eurasia. Etymology: (Greek: bear berries)
Unabridged Note: Rosatti (1986 Syst Bot 12:61--77) showed that in Arctostaphylos uva-ursi little to none of the variation in hairs (including length, glandularity) is genetically based.
eFlora Treatment Author: V. Thomas Parker, Michael C. Vasey & Jon E. Keeley

Arctostaphylos virgata Eastw.
NATIVE
Habit: Erect, 1--5 m. Stem: twig (and nascent inflorescence axis) short- and long-glandular-hairy. Leaf: ascending, overlapped; petiole 2--4 mm; blade 3--5 cm, 1--2.5 cm wide, narrowly oblong-ovate to lance-oblong, sparsely glandular-hairy, papillate, bright green, +- shiny, base truncate to +- lobed, tip acute, margin entire, flat. Inflorescence: +- raceme, 0--1-branched; nascent inflorescence pendent, axis 1.5--2 cm, > 1 mm wide; bracts persistent, 8--20 mm, leaf-like, lance-linear, acuminate, long-glandular-hairy, green; pedicel 3--8 mm, glandular-hairy. Flower: ovary glandular-hairy. Fruit: 6--8 mm wide, depressed-spheric, glandular-hairy, sticky; stones free. Chromosomes: 2n=26.
Ecology: Sandstone, granite outcrops in chaparral, conifer forest; Elevation: < 500 m. Bioregional Distribution: n CCo, nw SnFrB (Marin Co.). Flowering Time: Dec--Feb Note: Nascent inflorescence possibly 0; needs study.
Synonyms: Arctostaphylos columbiana Piper var. virgata (Eastw.) McMinn; Arctostaphylos glandulosa var. virgata (Eastw.) Jeps.
eFlora Treatment Author: V. Thomas Parker, Michael C. Vasey & Jon E. Keeley
Jepson Online Interchange
Listed on CNPS Rare Plant Inventory

Previous taxon: Arctostaphylos uva-ursi
Next taxon: Arctostaphylos viridissima

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Citation for this treatment: V. Thomas Parker, Michael C. Vasey & Jon E. Keeley 2016. Arctostaphylos virgata, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=13993, accessed on May 06, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on May 06, 2016.


Arctostaphylos virgata
click for enlargement
© 2010 Neal Kramer
Arctostaphylos virgata
click for enlargement
© 2010 Neal Kramer
Arctostaphylos virgata
click for enlargement
© 2010 Neal Kramer
Arctostaphylos virgata
click for enlargement
© 2010 Neal Kramer

More photos of Arctostaphylos virgata in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Arctostaphylos virgata:
n CCo, nw SnFrB (Marin Co.).
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.