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Arctostaphylos nissenana

Higher Taxonomy
Family: EricaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Perennial herb, shrub, tree. Stem: bark often peeling distinctively. Leaf: simple or 0, generally cauline, alternate, opposite (whorled), evergreen or deciduous, often leathery, petioled or not; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, cyme, or flowers 1, terminal or axillary, generally bracted; pedicel often with 2 bractlets. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, bell-shaped, cylindric, or urn-shaped; sepals generally (0)4--5, generally free; petals generally (0)4--5, free or fused; stamens (2--5)8--10, free, filaments rarely appendaged, anthers dehiscing by pores or slits, awns 0 or 2(4), seemingly abaxial, reduced or elongate, generally curved; nectary generally present at ovary base, generally disk-like; ovary superior or inferior, chambers generally 1--5, placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1--many per chamber, style 1, stigma head- to funnel-like or lobed. Fruit: capsule, drupe, berry. Seed: generally many, winged or not.
Genera In Family: +- 100 genera, 3000 species: generally worldwide except deserts; some cultivated, especially Arbutus, Arctostaphylos, Rhododendron, Vaccinium. Note: Monophyletic only if Empetraceae included, as treated here. Ledum included in Rhododendron. Non-green plants obtain nutrition from green plants through fungal intermediates.
eFlora Treatment Author: Gary D. Wallace, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Gary D. Wallace, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: ArctostaphylosView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: MANZANITA
Habit: Shrub to small tree, prostrate to erect. Stem: old stems generally +- red, smooth, bark generally thin, peeling, or generally +- gray or red-gray, shredding and rough; burls at base, woody, sprouting after fire, or generally 0; twig hairs 0 or generally +- like those on inflorescence axes, bracts. Leaf: alternate, evergreen; blade flat to convex, base lobed to wedge-shaped, clasping stem or not, margins generally flat, surfaces with stomata generally both abaxially, adaxially, alike in color, hairiness, less often only or fewer abaxially, generally differing in color, hairiness. Inflorescence: +- raceme (generally 0--1-branched) or panicle (generally 2--10-branched), terminal, nascent inflorescence present following stem growth, generally late spring through winter, remaining dormant 4--6 months prior to flower (except in Arctostaphylos pringlei subsp. drupacea); branches 0 or raceme-like; flower bracts leaf-like, generally flat, or scale-like, often folded, keeled, tips rounded to acute to awl-shaped. Flower: radial; sepals 5(4), free, persistent; corolla conic to urn-shaped, lobes in number = sepals, short, rounded, curved back, white to pink; stamens 2 × number of sepals, included, filaments swollen, generally hairy at base, anthers dark red, awns elongate; ovary superior, on disk, 4--10-chambered, ovule 1 per chamber. Fruit: drupe, generally +- depressed-spheric to spheric; flesh generally thick, +- mealy, occasionally 0; stones 2--10, free, fused, or some fused.
Species In Genus: +- 62 species: North America (especially California) to Central America, Eurasia. Etymology: (Greek: bear berries)
Unabridged Note: Rosatti (1986 Syst Bot 12:61--77) showed that in Arctostaphylos uva-ursi little to none of the variation in hairs (including length, glandularity) is genetically based.
eFlora Treatment Author: V. Thomas Parker, Michael C. Vasey & Jon E. Keeley

Arctostaphylos nissenana Merriam
Habit: Erect, 0.2--1.5 m. Stem: old stem bark persistent, gray, shredding; twig canescent. Leaf: erect; petiole 1--3 mm; blade 1--2 cm, 0.8--1.5 cm wide, elliptic to oblong-elliptic, glaucous, gray, dull, sparsely appressed-puberulent, glabrous in age, base wedge-shaped to rounded, tip acute, margin entire, flat. Inflorescence: +- raceme, 0--1-branched; nascent inflorescence pendent, axis 0.2--0.5 cm, > 1 mm wide, canescent; bracts 3--5 mm, leaf-like, lanceolate, glabrous to sparsely nonglandular-hairy; pedicel 5--7 mm, glabrous to sparsely nonglandular-hairy. Flower: ovary white-nonglandular-hairy. Fruit: 3--4 mm wide, +- cylindric, glabrous, mature splitting; stones free. Chromosomes: 2n=26.
Ecology: Open, rocky shale ridges, chaparral, woodland; Elevation: 450--1650 m. Bioregional Distribution: n SN (Placer, El Dorado cos.), c SNF (Tuolumne Co.). Flowering Time: Feb--Mar
Synonyms: Arctostaphylos nissenana var. arcana Jeps.; Schizococcus nissenanus (Merriam) Eastw.
eFlora Treatment Author: V. Thomas Parker, Michael C. Vasey & Jon E. Keeley
Jepson Online Interchange
Listed on CNPS Rare Plant Inventory

Previous taxon: Arctostaphylos nevadensis subsp. nevadensis
Next taxon: Arctostaphylos nortensis

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botanical illustration including Arctostaphylos nissenana


Citation for this treatment: V. Thomas Parker, Michael C. Vasey & Jon E. Keeley 2016. Arctostaphylos nissenana, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on February 08, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on February 08, 2016.

Arctostaphylos nissenana
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© 2011 David Graber
Arctostaphylos nissenana
click for enlargement
© 2011 David Graber
Arctostaphylos nissenana
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© 1992 David Graber
Arctostaphylos nissenana
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© 2011 John Game
Arctostaphylos nissenana
click for enlargement
© 2011 David Graber
Arctostaphylos nissenana
click for enlargement
© 2011 David Graber

More photos of Arctostaphylos nissenana in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Arctostaphylos nissenana:
n SN (Placer, El Dorado cos.), c SNF (Tuolumne Co.).
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.