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Arctostaphylos columbiana

Higher Taxonomy
Family: EricaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Perennial herb, shrub, tree. Stem: bark often peeling distinctively. Leaf: simple or 0, generally cauline, alternate, opposite (whorled), evergreen or deciduous, often leathery, petioled or not; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, cyme, or flowers 1, terminal or axillary, generally bracted; pedicel often with 2 bractlets. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, bell-shaped, cylindric, or urn-shaped; sepals generally (0)4--5, generally free; petals generally (0)4--5, free or fused; stamens (2--5)8--10, free, filaments rarely appendaged, anthers dehiscing by pores or slits, awns 0 or 2(4), seemingly abaxial, reduced or elongate, generally curved; nectary generally present at ovary base, generally disk-like; ovary superior or inferior, chambers generally 1--5, placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1--many per chamber, style 1, stigma head- to funnel-like or lobed. Fruit: capsule, drupe, berry. Seed: generally many, winged or not.
Genera In Family: +- 100 genera, 3000 species: generally worldwide except deserts; some cultivated, especially Arbutus, Arctostaphylos, Rhododendron, Vaccinium. Note: Monophyletic only if Empetraceae included, as treated here. Ledum included in Rhododendron. Non-green plants obtain nutrition from green plants through fungal intermediates.
eFlora Treatment Author: Gary D. Wallace, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Gary D. Wallace, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: ArctostaphylosView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: MANZANITA
Habit: Shrub to small tree, prostrate to erect. Stem: old stems generally +- red, smooth, bark generally thin, peeling, or generally +- gray or red-gray, shredding and rough; burls at base, woody, sprouting after fire, or generally 0; twig hairs 0 or generally +- like those on inflorescence axes, bracts. Leaf: alternate, evergreen; blade flat to convex, base lobed to wedge-shaped, clasping stem or not, margins generally flat, surfaces with stomata generally both abaxially, adaxially, alike in color, hairiness, less often only or fewer abaxially, generally differing in color, hairiness. Inflorescence: +- raceme (generally 0--1-branched) or panicle (generally 2--10-branched), terminal, nascent inflorescence present following stem growth, generally late spring through winter, remaining dormant 4--6 months prior to flower (except in Arctostaphylos pringlei subsp. drupacea); branches 0 or raceme-like; flower bracts leaf-like, generally flat, or scale-like, often folded, keeled, tips rounded to acute to awl-shaped. Flower: radial; sepals 5(4), free, persistent; corolla conic to urn-shaped, lobes in number = sepals, short, rounded, curved back, white to pink; stamens 2 × number of sepals, included, filaments swollen, generally hairy at base, anthers dark red, awns elongate; ovary superior, on disk, 4--10-chambered, ovule 1 per chamber. Fruit: drupe, generally +- depressed-spheric to spheric; flesh generally thick, +- mealy, occasionally 0; stones 2--10, free, fused, or some fused.
Species In Genus: +- 62 species: North America (especially California) to Central America, Eurasia. Etymology: (Greek: bear berries)
Unabridged Note: Rosatti (1986 Syst Bot 12:61--77) showed that in Arctostaphylos uva-ursi little to none of the variation in hairs (including length, glandularity) is genetically based.
eFlora Treatment Author: V. Thomas Parker, Michael C. Vasey & Jon E. Keeley

Arctostaphylos columbiana Piper
Habit: Shrub, small tree, erect, (1)2--5 m. Stem: twig generally white-tomentose, glandular or not. Leaf: spreading; petiole 4--10 mm; blade 4--6 cm, 2--3 cm wide, lanceolate to ovate, flat, dark green, dull, sparsely glandular-hairy, +- papillate, scabrous, base wedge-shaped to +- rounded, tip acute, margin entire. Inflorescence: panicle, 3--8-branched; nascent inflorescence pendent, axis 1.5--2.5 cm, > 1 mm wide; bracts leaf-like, green, persistent, stiff, densely short- and long-white-nonglandular-hairy, occasionally glandular-hairy; pedicel 2--4 mm, glandular-hairy. Flower: ovary densely white-nonglandular-hairy, sparsely glandular. Fruit: 8--11 mm wide, depressed-spheric, sparsely nonglandular-hairy; stones free. Chromosomes: 2n=26.
Ecology: Rocky coastal uplands, maritime chaparral, conifer forest; Elevation: < 800 m. Bioregional Distribution: NCo, w KR, NCoRO; Distribution Outside California: to British Columbia. Flowering Time: Mar--May Note: Arctostaphylos ×media Greene (prostrate to mounded shrub < 1 m; inflorescence +- raceme, 0--1-branched) presumed hybrid with Arctostaphylos uva-ursi.
Synonyms: Arctostaphylos columbiana f. tracyi (Eastw.) P.V. Wells; Arctostaphylos columbiana var. tracyi (Eastw.) J.E. Adams; Arctostaphylos tracyi Eastw.
eFlora Treatment Author: V. Thomas Parker, Michael C. Vasey & Jon E. Keeley
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botanical illustration including Arctostaphylos columbiana


Citation for this treatment: V. Thomas Parker, Michael C. Vasey & Jon E. Keeley 2016. Arctostaphylos columbiana, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 02, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 02, 2016.

Arctostaphylos columbiana
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer
Arctostaphylos columbiana
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer
Arctostaphylos columbiana
click for enlargement
© 2010 California Academy of Sciences
Arctostaphylos columbiana
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer

More photos of Arctostaphylos columbiana in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Arctostaphylos columbiana:
NCo, w KR, NCoRO;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.