Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Vascular Plants of California
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Arbutus menziesii
PACIFIC MADRONE


Higher Taxonomy
Family: EricaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: HEATH FAMILY
Habit: Perennial herb, shrub, tree. Stem: bark often peeling distinctively. Leaf: simple or 0, generally cauline, alternate, opposite (whorled), evergreen or deciduous, often leathery, petioled or not; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, cyme, or flowers 1, terminal or axillary, generally bracted; pedicel often with 2 bractlets. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, bell-shaped, cylindric, or urn-shaped; sepals generally (0)4--5, generally free; petals generally (0)4--5, free or fused; stamens (2--5)8--10, free, filaments rarely appendaged, anthers dehiscing by pores or slits, awns 0 or 2(4), seemingly abaxial, reduced or elongate, generally curved; nectary generally present at ovary base, generally disk-like; ovary superior or inferior, chambers generally 1--5, placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1--many per chamber, style 1, stigma head- to funnel-like or lobed. Fruit: capsule, drupe, berry. Seed: generally many, winged or not.
Genera In Family: +- 100 genera, 3000 species: generally worldwide except deserts; some cultivated, especially Arbutus, Arctostaphylos, Rhododendron, Vaccinium. Note: Monophyletic only if Empetraceae included, as treated here. Ledum included in Rhododendron. Non-green plants obtain nutrition from green plants through fungal intermediates.
eFlora Treatment Author: Gary D. Wallace, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Gary D. Wallace, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: ArbutusView Description 


Common Name: MADRONE
Habit: Shrub, tree, glabrous to hairy, burled or not. Stem: erect; bark smooth at first, then shredding or fissured. Leaf: alternate, evergreen, leathery. Inflorescence: panicle, bracted; bractlets 2. Flower: sepals 5, fused at base; corolla urn-shaped, petals 5, fused; stamens 10, anthers dehiscing by short separate gaping slits, awns elongate; ovary superior, papillate, chambers 5. Fruit: berry. Seed: few per chamber.
Species In Genus: 20 species: North America, Central America, western Europe, Mediterranean, western Asia. Etymology: (Latin: name for Arbutus unedo L., strawberry tree)
eFlora Treatment Author: Gary D. Wallace
Arbutus menziesii Pursh
NATIVE
Stem: < 40 m, bark +- red, twigs stout. Leaf: blade < 12 cm, ovate to oblong, glabrous, rounded to pointed at tip, entire to minutely serrate, abaxially +- white, adaxially bright green. Flower: < 8 mm; corolla yellow-white or +- pink. Fruit: < 12 mm, spheric, orange-red, papillate. Chromosomes: 2n=26.
Ecology: Conifer, oak forests; Elevation: 100--1500 m. Bioregional Distribution: NW, CaR, n SNF, n&c SNH, ScV, CW, n ChI (Santa Cruz Island), WTR, SnGb, PR; Distribution Outside California: to British Columbia, Baja California. Flowering Time: Mar--May
Jepson eFlora Author: Gary D. Wallace
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Botanical illustration including Arbutus menziesii

botanical illustration including Arbutus menziesii

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Citation for this treatment: Gary D. Wallace 2012, Arbutus menziesii, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=13872, accessed on December 08, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on December 08, 2019.

Arbutus menziesii
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© 2008 Neal Kramer
Arbutus menziesii
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© 2016 Keir Morse
Arbutus menziesii
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© 2010 Neal Kramer
Arbutus menziesii
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© 2009 Barry Breckling
Arbutus menziesii
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© 2010 Julie Kierstead Nelson
Arbutus menziesii
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© 2004 George W. Hartwell

More photos of Arbutus menziesii in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Arbutus menziesii:
NW, CaR, n SNF, n&c SNH, ScV, CW, n ChI (Santa Cruz Island), WTR, SnGb, PR
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

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Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
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All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.