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Anchusa officinalis
COMMON ALKANET

Higher Taxonomy
Family: BoraginaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: BORAGE or WATERLEAF FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub or small tree, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1--2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, generally without scales at tube base, with 0 or 5 appendages at tube top, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary generally superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1--4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
Genera In Family: +- 120 genera, +- 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum, Wigandia). Toxicity: Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. Note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. Wigandia urens added, as naturalized.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.
Genus: AnchusaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: ALKANET
Habit: [Annual] perennial herb (may flowering 1st year); hairs bristly, bases bulbous or not. Stem: +- erect. Leaf: basal and cauline, petioled to sessile, clasping, lance-linear [oblong to oblanceolate], +- entire. Inflorescence: axillary or terminal, generally spike-like cymes; tip coiled. Flower: corolla funnel-shaped to salverform, pale blue to violet, appendages 5, ovate to oblong, +- puberulent; stamens included to exserted. Fruit: nutlets 1--4, erect, +- ovoid, irregularly angled or wrinkled, exposed attachment scar basal or oblique, scar surrounded by thick rim.
Species In Genus: +- 35 species: Eurasia, Africa. Ornamental, cultivated for drugs, dyes. Etymology: (Greek: ancient name for alkanet) Note: Anchusa arvensis (L.) M. Bieb. occasionally in orchards.

Anchusa officinalis L.
NATURALIZED
Stem: 4--7 dm. Leaf: upper 5--10 mm wide. Flower: calyx 5--7 mm, 8--12 mm in fruit, lobes lanceolate; corolla radial, salverform, tube 5--10 mm, straight, limb 6--12 mm diam, violet to blue-violet, (dark blue), appendages +- white; stamens on upper tube, +- exserted. Fruit: nutlet base 2--3.5 mm wide, tip incurved, scar basal. Chromosomes: 2n=16.
Ecology: Roadsides; Elevation: 70--150 m. Bioregional Distribution: CaRF, ScV; Distribution Outside California: widespread United States; native to Europe. Flowering Time: May--Jul
Synonyms: Anchusa procera Link
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley
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Citation for this treatment: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley 2016. Anchusa officinalis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=13222, accessed on May 04, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on May 04, 2016.


Geographic subdivisions for Anchusa officinalis:
CaRF, ScV;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.